소개글Have you ever seen the movie `Grbavica`? This impressive movie which was released in January in Korea is about Esma, the rape victim in Bosnia, and her daughter Sara who is the result of rape. The Bosnia civil war happened in 1990s, but the horrors of the war is still having effect to the residents of Bosnia. When I watched this movie, I thought, `Why did they rape women? Just for sexual satisfaction?` However, the answer is that rape has significant functions in the war.
Rape is not new. It is happening or had happened in the whole world where the war or genocide is happening or had happened such as Bosnia, Darfur, the Democratic Republic of Congo, East Timor, Rwanda, Kenya, Iraq, Afghanistan, Kosovo, Sierra Leone, Sri Lanka and so on.
Rape as a war crime
Bosnia and Sierra Leone
Anguish of victims after the fact
Rape as a Weapon
본문내용Rape is the biggest psychological trauma that women can experience. However, wartime rape has been mischaraterized by military and political leader as an inevitable problem of sending men to war. Also, it had been considered as a private and unfortunate incident. Fortunately, since 1998, the International Tribunals such as the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY), the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR), and the International Criminal Court (ICC) has convicted war criminals of sexual violence. Especially, in 2001, the ICTY convicted Dragoljub Kunarac, Radomir Kovac, and Zoran Vukovic of rape. It was the first time to convict people of rape against women for ICTY. According to Regan Ralpd, the Director of the Women`s Rights Division in Human Rights Watch, "This decision sets a legal standard for sexual enslavement as a crime against humanity."
참고 자료1. "International Legal Prohibitions against Sexual Violence" (2007) in Human Rights Watch Report: My heart is cut Volume 19.
2. Human Rights Watch - Women and Armed Conflicts; International Justice, http://www.hrw.org/women/conflict.html.
3. Dorothy Q. Thomas and Regan E. Ralph (1994) "Rape in War: Challenging the Tradition of Impunity" in SAIS Review (Vol): The Johns Hopkins University Press.
4. 「동아시아의 평화와 인권」(1999), 제주4.3연구소, 서울: 역사비평사.
5. 「페미니즘의 도전」(2005), 정희진, 서울: 교양인.
6. 「나는 평화를 기원하지 않는다」(2006), 김재명, 서울: 지형.
7. 「아시아의 낯선 희망들」(2007), 이유경, 서울: 인물과 사상사.
8. 「내셔널리즘과 젠더」 (2000), 우에노 치즈코, 이선이 역, 서울: 박종철출판사.
9. 「여성정치학 입문」(2005), 강경희, 서울: 들녘.
10. The Geneva Conventions:
11. "Bosnia Rape" (1993) in Balkan Repository Project.
12. Human Rights Watch World Report 1994.
13. Kitty McKinsey (1993) "MASS RAPE IN BOSNIA: 20,000 WOMEN, MOSTLY MUSLIMS, HAVE BEEN ABUSED BY SERB SOLDIERS" in SOUTHAM NEWS.
14. "RAPE WAS WEAPON OF SERBS, U.N. SAYS" (Oct. 20 1993) in The New York Yimes.
15. Roy Gutman(1993) "Rape Camps Evidence Serb leaders in Bosnia attacks" in Newsday.
16. "Bosnia: Landmark Verdicts for Rape, Torture, and Sexual Enslavement" (2001) in Human Rights Watch News.
17. "Stop violence against women" (2004) in Amnesty International.
18. Kate Holt (13 Dec. 2005) "Bosnia`s rape babies: abandoned by their families, forgotten by the state" in The Independent.
19. "Annan Must Reject Amnesty for Sierra Leone Crimes"(1999) in Human Rights Watch News.
20. Human Rights Watch - In the Field in Sierra Leone, http://hrw.org/video/2002/sierraleone/
21. "Shocking War Crimes in Sierra Leone" (June 24, 1999) in Human Rights Watch News.
22. "Getting Away with Murder, Mutilation, Rape (1999) in Human Rights Watch Report: New Testimony from Sierra Leone Vol. 11.
23. "Sierra Leone: Rape and other forms of sexual violence against girls and women" (June 2000) in Amnesty International Report.
24. "Sexual Violence within the Sierra Leone Conflict" in Human Rights Watch World Report 2001: Sierra Leone