敎育社會學의 學問的 性格

저작시기 1972.01 |등록일 2015.03.25 파일확장자어도비 PDF (pdf) | 13페이지 | 가격 2,500원
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상세신규 배너

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발행기관 : 한국교육학회 수록지정보 : 교육학연구 / 10권 / 2호
저자명 : 張眞鎬

목차

1. 序
2. 學問的 性格 규정의 문제
3. 社會學과 敎育學
4. 科學的 立場과 人間的 立場
5. 敎育社會學에 있어서의 事實과 價値
6. 結論-綜合學으로서의 敎育社會學
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영어 초록

This study proposes to develop a systematic theory of the characteristics of the sociology of education as an academic discipline. Through current studies about this discipline, we can find two main streams in its approach. One approach is called educational sociology ; the other is called the sociology of education. In the former, practical problems of education are emphasized. The application of sociological methodology is focused on finding the practical problems taking place in various educational fields and on solving such problems. Compared with the former approach, the sociology of education(a branch of social science) puts disciplinary stress on the scientific analysis of objective facts with the following point of view: no matter whether it is related to practical field problems or not, its purpose is the development of scientific analysis and objective theory.
A neutral position, which is trying to bridge the two opposing view points mentioned above, attempts to eliminate any strict boundary laid down between the two approaches in order to establish an integrated science-the sociology of education. Ashley and his colleague show us their neutral position in shaping the characteristics of the sociology of education ; that is, an experimental attempt to combine theory and practice, fact and value,
The sociology of education sets its roots in two basic academic grounds-sociology and education. The common subject of these two basic disciplines is human behavior, and the common function in both may be said to be the socialization of man. Even though the sociology of education employs a sociological approach, it is not reasonable to categorize this science under either sociology or applied sociology. Rather, the sociology of education forms. an independent discipline as a social science and develops its own theory, having fused with educational contents and sociological methodology. In order to develop as a unique social science, the sociology of education needs to draw on related-sciences such as social psychology, anthropology, economics, and politics as well as education and sociology.
The characteristics of the sociology of education are derived from both the Scientific and the human points of view. Social science has been recognized as a human science as indicated by Goldhammer. The sociology of education has very important scientific task in its methodological process. Scientific observation and analysis can give us objective standards to evaluate educational phenomena. However, scientific methods have their limitation, because to investigate the total educational phenomenon functioning in the midst of the total social situation is impossible with the use of only partial observation and analytic methods. Human interaction and total human behavior in society account for the scope and content of education; and that, of cource, is the main subject of the sociology of education. The human point of view therefore is an essential fact in the total context of socio-educational phenomena.
The last part of this study concerns the problems of fact and value. As we have discussed above, one of the main tasks of the sociology of education is the scientific analysis and theoretical verification of objective facts which are derived from social and educational phenomena. At the same time, it is also important to find a meaningful relationship between partial(fragment) facts, The works that explain a meaningful relationship among partial facts and between facts and a researcher's judgement lead to value-oriented problems. Consequently, in the study of social science as human science, problems concerning value judgement may not be disregarded. Just as value-free sociology can not exist, value-free sociology of education can not be considered, either. Rather, we should understand that facts and values as social-educational reality are both included in the study of this academic discipline
Through the above discussion we have been urged to draw the conclusion that the sociology of education should have the characteristics of an integrated social science. Those charateristics can be described as follows: First, it should have an integrated function of developing personality and society, as viewed from the standpoint of the socializing process. Second, it should integrate educational theory and practice since it concerns both theoretical and practical problems of education(e. g., objectives methods, curriculum, socialization and acculturation). Third, the sociology of education should be established as an independent social science on an integrated foundation of related sciences. The scope of the study of the sociology of education is very broad, including culture, groups, personality formation, mass communication, political socialization, man power, etc. To tackle such kinds of research deviously requires the combined knowledge and methodology of various, specialized fields. Fourth, the sociology of education should include both the experimental attitudes of empirical science and the normative attitudes of the human value system in its integral study. Educational reality can be understood only in the interaction(dialectic synthesis) between facts and values. Fifth, research in the sociology of education should integratively be tried from the view point of mutual control between educational and social forces-educational influence on social change, and social forces which control educational devices. Sixth, an integrated methodology for the sociology of education should be unbiased. Quantitative measurement and statistical transaction are valuable methods but they are not the only way to explore all social-educational problems. Qualitative methodology also is necessary for effective investigation of human behavior in the educational society.
Modern sociology of education may be characterized as an independent discipline of social science, which is defined as human science. It is not a misconception that the sociology of education has an integrated function for the “education of modrern man”, who has complex roles.

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