에른스트 톨러의 표현주의 이념극 『변화』 연구

저작시기 2005.11 |등록일 2013.04.04 파일확장자어도비 PDF (pdf) | 23페이지 | 가격 6,000원
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서지정보

발행기관 : 한국외국어대학교 외국문학연구소 수록지정보 : 외국문학연구
저자명 : 김충남

목차

Ⅰ. 서론
Ⅱ. 『변화』에 투영된 자전적 요소
Ⅲ. 『변화』의 형식과 구성
Ⅳ. 새로운 인간으로의 변화
Ⅴ. 결론
참고 문헌

한국어 초록

Ernst Toller"s first drama Die Wandlung, with which he gains fame as an expressionist dramatist, is a typical work at that time including primary factors of the expressionism. All the key headword of the expressionist drama such as change, reformation of human being, new human being, human being-literature, leading role drama, ideological drama, notice drama, and station drama are included in this work. Therefore, the investigation and analysis of this drama will be helpful for us to understand the ideology and the form of the expressionist drama.
This paper first investigated the autobiographical factor of Toller reflected in the drama Die Wandlung, namely what kind of decisive change makes him play the part of new human being for himself in his life and then, what changes Friedrich, his figure of literature, from an ultranationalist into a pacifist, or a new human being in conformity with the formation of drama.
Toller was born again as the antiwar and pacifist from an ultranationalist after he volunteered the France front in 1915 and personally experienced the tragic realities in the First World War. Since then, he has played the role of new human being who is ready to sacrifice himself in order to build up a new world with full peace and fraternal love in the times of becoming dehumanized day after day. Die Wandlung, as an outstanding station style drama in the times of expressionism, well represents a mental growth of the character with a dynamic language and unique symbolic world closely combining internal and external structure of the drama. Especially in Chapter 7, the forth station in the drama, is a model scene of the expressionism change drama as a zenith and a turning point of the drama, which shows a change of Friedrich into a new human being, namely pacifisms reformer of the world from a nationalist praising the war.
Although Die Wandlung has the merits such as the successful case of human being-literature and the typical ideological drama of the expressionism, this drama has some controversial issues in the aspects of contents and structure. The leading character, Friedrich, doesn"t have any real antagonist and dramatic complications to be solved. Die Wandlung doesn"t have any dramatic but prosaic characteristics that may be seen in a passion play of the Christ. Like the Christ, Friedrich has no player of the opposite role against him. No independent and self-controlling characters exist except the leading character. Strictly speaking, the leading character doesn"t act but reflect. Even in the last scene of the drama, he preaches and speaks the ideals that relieve the mankind. The decisive changes in the drama such as parting from the nationalism, change into a pacificism socialist and the enlightenment of all mankind are accomplished by monologue reflection or propaganda speech of the leading character.
Die Wandlung shows a typical will of the expressionism that is going to reform the world. This pacificisms revolution for the real human being, however, is just a simple appeal and doesn"t show any action. Toller attacks religion, homeland, war, and old order in the drama, but he does not propose the specific and actual plan that enable the awakened people to form a new community. As shown in the political tenor of Toller"s life, the vague humanism and pacificisms ideals are not enough to build up the utopian socialism community. After all, Die Wandlung is no more than the ideological drama or notice drama of the expressionism in which the author Toller and the leading character Friedrich just emphasize a new human being and new world to the audience and show their adoration toward a real human society.

영어 초록

Ernst Toller's first drama Die Wandlung, with which he gains fame as an expressionist dramatist, is a typical work at that time including primary factors of the expressionism. All the key headword of the expressionist drama such as change, reformation of human being, new human being, human being-literature, leading role drama, ideological drama, notice drama, and station drama are included in this work. Therefore, the investigation and analysis of this drama will be helpful for us to understand the ideology and the form of the expressionist drama.
This paper first investigated the autobiographical factor of Toller reflected in the drama Die Wandlung, namely what kind of decisive change makes him play the part of new human being for himself in his life and then, what changes Friedrich, his figure of literature, from an ultranationalist into a pacifist, or a new human being in conformity with the formation of drama.
Toller was born again as the antiwar and pacifist from an ultranationalist after he volunteered the France front in 1915 and personally experienced the tragic realities in the First World War. Since then, he has played the role of new human being who is ready to sacrifice himself in order to build up a new world with full peace and fraternal love in the times of becoming dehumanized day after day. Die Wandlung, as an outstanding station style drama in the times of expressionism, well represents a mental growth of the character with a dynamic language and unique symbolic world closely combining internal and external structure of the drama. Especially in Chapter 7, the forth station in the drama, is a model scene of the expressionism change drama as a zenith and a turning point of the drama, which shows a change of Friedrich into a new human being, namely pacifisms reformer of the world from a nationalist praising the war.
Although Die Wandlung has the merits such as the successful case of human being-literature and the typical ideological drama of the expressionism, this drama has some controversial issues in the aspects of contents and structure. The leading character, Friedrich, doesn't have any real antagonist and dramatic complications to be solved. Die Wandlung doesn't have any dramatic but prosaic characteristics that may be seen in a passion play of the Christ. Like the Christ, Friedrich has no player of the opposite role against him. No independent and self-controlling characters exist except the leading character. Strictly speaking, the leading character doesn't act but reflect. Even in the last scene of the drama, he preaches and speaks the ideals that relieve the mankind. The decisive changes in the drama such as parting from the nationalism, change into a pacificism socialist and the enlightenment of all mankind are accomplished by monologue reflection or propaganda speech of the leading character.
Die Wandlung shows a typical will of the expressionism that is going to reform the world. This pacificisms revolution for the real human being, however, is just a simple appeal and doesn't show any action. Toller attacks religion, homeland, war, and old order in the drama, but he does not propose the specific and actual plan that enable the awakened people to form a new community. As shown in the political tenor of Toller's life, the vague humanism and pacificisms ideals are not enough to build up the utopian socialism community. After all, Die Wandlung is no more than the ideological drama or notice drama of the expressionism in which the author Toller and the leading character Friedrich just emphasize a new human being and new world to the audience and show their adoration toward a real human society.

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