기원전 4세기 로마인들은 어떻게, 무엇을 위해 전투했는가?

저작시기 2009.12 |등록일 2010.03.29 파일확장자어도비 PDF (pdf) | 27페이지 | 가격 6,000원
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서지정보

발행기관 : 한국서양고대역사문화학회 수록지정보 : 서양고대사연구 / 25권
저자명 : 차전환

목차

Ⅰ. 머리말
Ⅱ. 군대의 조직과 전술
Ⅲ. 전투와 그 보상
Ⅳ. 맺음말
〈Abstract〉

한국어 초록

This paper tried to investigate the Roman military ability which allowed the Romans from about the middle of the fourth century to conquer the whole of Italy south of the Po valley quite quickly. Rome accepted a Greekstyle hoplite phalanx by the Servian reforms which established a single classis of all those capable of equipping for themselves. During the war against Veii the Roman army was expanded from 4000 to 6000 men, probably by the creation of the "second" and "third" classes, and these new groups began to use the long Italic shield(scutum) instead of traditional circular one. The scutum protected the body and legs of a soldier better. The Roman army underwent what is called "military revolution" in the fourth century BC. The oval Italic scutum became the standard shield of the legionary, and the majority of legionaries were equipped with a throwing javelin instead of the thrusting spear. The phalanx-legion ceased to fight as a single body, but adopted a number of units known as maniples capable of limited independent action. These units were arranged in three distinct lines, and the Romans gave battle by deploying three lines successively. The new flexibility of battle-order and equipment were to be cardinal factors in the Roman conquest of Italy.
The Romans had a habit of almost annual warfare in the fourth century BC. The annual warfare was also characteristic of most other Italian states or tribes. From the middle of the fourth century, the determining factor in Roman warfare was confiscation and colonization of land than plundering of booty. As a result of rapid expansion, the Romans could carry our substantial program of colonization which helped lessen the problem of debt among the poor. The introduction of 5 per cent tax on the manumission of slaves and the suppression of nexum implied the availability of ample quantities of slaves due to the enslavement of war-captives. The economic rewards of warfare also manifested in the building and adornment of Rome and many other Italian towns. The process of building began in the period around 300. In the end of the fourth century and the early of the third century the Roman generals celebrated their military success more frequently than any other period of the Republic. These facts considered, Rome did not battle in self-defense or in defense of allies, but tried to conquer Italy being conscious of economic rewards of war.

영어 초록

This paper tried to investigate the Roman military ability which allowed the Romans from about the middle of the fourth century to conquer the whole of Italy south of the Po valley quite quickly. Rome accepted a Greekstyle hoplite phalanx by the Servian reforms which established a single classis of all those capable of equipping for themselves. During the war against Veii the Roman army was expanded from 4000 to 6000 men, probably by the creation of the 'second' and 'third' classes, and these new groups began to use the long Italic shield(scutum) instead of traditional circular one. The scutum protected the body and legs of a soldier better. The Roman army underwent what is called 'military revolution' in the fourth century BC. The oval Italic scutum became the standard shield of the legionary, and the majority of legionaries were equipped with a throwing javelin instead of the thrusting spear. The phalanx-legion ceased to fight as a single body, but adopted a number of units known as maniples capable of limited independent action. These units were arranged in three distinct lines, and the Romans gave battle by deploying three lines successively. The new flexibility of battle-order and equipment were to be cardinal factors in the Roman conquest of Italy.
The Romans had a habit of almost annual warfare in the fourth century BC. The annual warfare was also characteristic of most other Italian states or tribes. From the middle of the fourth century, the determining factor in Roman warfare was confiscation and colonization of land than plundering of booty. As a result of rapid expansion, the Romans could carry our substantial program of colonization which helped lessen the problem of debt among the poor. The introduction of 5 per cent tax on the manumission of slaves and the suppression of nexum implied the availability of ample quantities of slaves due to the enslavement of war-captives. The economic rewards of warfare also manifested in the building and adornment of Rome and many other Italian towns. The process of building began in the period around 300. In the end of the fourth century and the early of the third century the Roman generals celebrated their military success more frequently than any other period of the Republic. These facts considered, Rome did not battle in self-defense or in defense of allies, but tried to conquer Italy being conscious of economic rewards of war.

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