미국대학 세속화 과정의 주요요인으로서의 교과과정 논쟁 연구

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서지정보

발행기관 : 한국기독교교육정보학회 수록지정보 : 기독교교육정보 / 18권
저자명 : 한철희

목차

Ⅰ. 서론
Ⅱ. 세속화의 배경으로서의 학문전통의 변화
Ⅲ. 세속화의 현시화(顯示化)로서의 교과과정 논쟁
Ⅳ. 결론
참고문헌
Abstract

한국어 초록

American universities radically changed during the critical period of 50 years between the Civil War and World War Ⅰ. Pre-Civil War colleges have insisted that the sciences fostered a religious interpretation of reality and natures explained the act of an omnipotent God"s act of creation. However, late-nineteenth-century universities came to maintain that theology and religious learning are not the appropriate source of knowledge nor the effective methodological principle to deal with the natural and social phenomena.
The dominant cause of this decisive turning point in the history of American higher education was the battle to reform the college curriculum. In the winter of 1885, president Charles W. Eliot of Harvard and president James McCosh of Princeton conducted debate on the ideal college curriculum. The national prominence of this encounter detonated a battle on curriculum which has prolonged for a century.
Influenced by Darwinism, Eliot suggested three elements for the free elective system: freedom in the choice of studies, opportunity to win academic distinction in single subjects, and a discipline which distinctly imposes on each individual the responsibility of forming his own habits and guiding his own conduct. Under Eliot"s forty-year leadership, Harvard adopted an "elective system" and made the transition from a small college to a modem university.
A Scottish Presbyterian philosopher, McCosh insisted that free election is merely the principle of laissez-faire and it obviously encouraged dilettantism. He maintained that regular attendance should be required, and the whole curriculum should be carefully weighed and logically worked out for all four years, including obligatory core course and a reasonable variety of solid electives. He suggested the curriculum of Princetonian trinity, namely, language and literature, science, and philosophy.
Under the ground of this nationally prominent debate and the inside of the issues in the educational controversies of this century, there had been always the "interplay and opposition of the secular and the sacred". As W. B. Carnochan rightly observed, the belief in the sacredness of learning has in America never been entirely lost.

영어 초록

American universities radically changed during the critical period of 50 years between the Civil War and World War Ⅰ. Pre-Civil War colleges have insisted that the sciences fostered a religious interpretation of reality and natures explained the act of an omnipotent God's act of creation. However, late-nineteenth-century universities came to maintain that theology and religious learning are not the appropriate source of knowledge nor the effective methodological principle to deal with the natural and social phenomena.
The dominant cause of this decisive turning point in the history of American higher education was the battle to reform the college curriculum. In the winter of 1885, president Charles W. Eliot of Harvard and president James McCosh of Princeton conducted debate on the ideal college curriculum. The national prominence of this encounter detonated a battle on curriculum which has prolonged for a century.
Influenced by Darwinism, Eliot suggested three elements for the free elective system: freedom in the choice of studies, opportunity to win academic distinction in single subjects, and a discipline which distinctly imposes on each individual the responsibility of forming his own habits and guiding his own conduct. Under Eliot's forty-year leadership, Harvard adopted an 'elective system' and made the transition from a small college to a modem university.
A Scottish Presbyterian philosopher, McCosh insisted that free election is merely the principle of laissez-faire and it obviously encouraged dilettantism. He maintained that regular attendance should be required, and the whole curriculum should be carefully weighed and logically worked out for all four years, including obligatory core course and a reasonable variety of solid electives. He suggested the curriculum of Princetonian trinity, namely, language and literature, science, and philosophy.
Under the ground of this nationally prominent debate and the inside of the issues in the educational controversies of this century, there had been always the "interplay and opposition of the secular and the sacred". As W. B. Carnochan rightly observed, the belief in the sacredness of learning has in America never been entirely lost.

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