살라미스 해전에서 ‘나무 성벽’ 신탁의 역할

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서지정보

발행기관 : 부산경남사학회 수록지정보 : 역사와경계 / 59권
저자명 : 변정심

목차

Ⅰ. 머리말
Ⅱ. 신탁의 연대
Ⅲ. 신탁의 절차와 형식
Ⅳ. 신탁의 해석
Ⅴ. 맺음말
【Abstract】

한국어 초록

The two oracles which Athens received from Delphi on the eve of Xerxes" invasion of Greece are an integral part of the story of Salamis as it appears in Herodotos" History. But they introduce a set of problems that defy resolution. They pose three questions. The first is chronological one, the second is the procedural one of consulting the oracle and delivering the response. The last is the meaning of the ‘wooden wall’. The aim of this essay is to establish the role of the ‘wooden wall’ oracle in the battle of Salamis.
When were the oracles given? By the most natural interpretation of Herodotos" Historiai at Ⅶ.145.1, the Athenians received the two oracles sometime prior to the first congress of Greeks, thus before the autumn of 481 B.C. The Athenians took the fateful decision to meet the attack with her force at sea and intended to evacuate Attica. When the Athenians forces returned from Artemision to Athens in the September of 480 B.C., it was proclaimed that each Athenians was to save his children and household as he was able. It has been suggested that this, not in itself a decree, put in to effect a resolution which had moved previously. The evacuation decree preserved in so-called Themistocles Decree, an inscription from Troizen which dates to the third century B.C. but is purportedly a copy of an original fifth-century resolution. According to it the Athenians decided to evacuate Attica before the battles of Artemision.
The authenticity of the oracles is open to question. The two oracles given Athens by Delphi are of twelve hexameters each. The First of the two oracles was a spontaneous utterance, where the Pythia spoke before the envoys put their question. Herodotus does not say anything about the actual question they were sent to ask the oracle, they would be asked that it would be better and more profitable for us to abandon our city and the temple of the gods and take to the ships, or to wait for coming of the Persians. The second of the two oracles involves a double consultation, apparently on the same day, though Herodotos does not say so. The Pythia did make their ambiguous utterances as Herodotos has recorded. That the ingenious and unscrupulous Themistocles manipulated the whole proceedings for his own ends also appears not unlikely. Unless we assume the Herodotos"s version of event is grossly distorted, we should accept that references to both Salamis and the wooden wall appeared in the oracle the Athenians originally received.
Was the wooden wall a real or a figurative wall? Those who were expert in the art of interpretation advised flight overseas and avoidance of battle at Salamis, but Themistocles carried the Assembly with his view that the wooden wall meant the fleet and the epithet ‘holy’ made ‘Salamis’ favourable to Athens. The matter came to a vote. Themistocles won, and a decree was passed stipulating that the Athenians would engage the barbarian by sea with all their forces. That Themistocles was able to turn the debate is to the credit of his audience, as well as to his own. Athenians intended to evacuate Attica and use Salamis as naval base during the war, a strategy suggested by the use to which the island of Lade had been put by the Ionians during their revolt from Persia. Decision-making in democratic Athens was heavily influenced by concern to establish and to follow the will of the gods. Following the will of the god would always be the same as following the will of the community. The oracle would make some difficult decisions easier by reframing the issues at stake, and give the appearance of external authority for those decision, making it easier to reconcile members of society to them.

영어 초록

The two oracles which Athens received from Delphi on the eve of Xerxes' invasion of Greece are an integral part of the story of Salamis as it appears in Herodotos' History. But they introduce a set of problems that defy resolution. They pose three questions. The first is chronological one, the second is the procedural one of consulting the oracle and delivering the response. The last is the meaning of the ‘wooden wall’. The aim of this essay is to establish the role of the ‘wooden wall’ oracle in the battle of Salamis.
When were the oracles given? By the most natural interpretation of Herodotos' Historiai at Ⅶ.145.1, the Athenians received the two oracles sometime prior to the first congress of Greeks, thus before the autumn of 481 B.C. The Athenians took the fateful decision to meet the attack with her force at sea and intended to evacuate Attica. When the Athenians forces returned from Artemision to Athens in the September of 480 B.C., it was proclaimed that each Athenians was to save his children and household as he was able. It has been suggested that this, not in itself a decree, put in to effect a resolution which had moved previously. The evacuation decree preserved in so-called Themistocles Decree, an inscription from Troizen which dates to the third century B.C. but is purportedly a copy of an original fifth-century resolution. According to it the Athenians decided to evacuate Attica before the battles of Artemision.
The authenticity of the oracles is open to question. The two oracles given Athens by Delphi are of twelve hexameters each. The First of the two oracles was a spontaneous utterance, where the Pythia spoke before the envoys put their question. Herodotus does not say anything about the actual question they were sent to ask the oracle, they would be asked that it would be better and more profitable for us to abandon our city and the temple of the gods and take to the ships, or to wait for coming of the Persians. The second of the two oracles involves a double consultation, apparently on the same day, though Herodotos does not say so. The Pythia did make their ambiguous utterances as Herodotos has recorded. That the ingenious and unscrupulous Themistocles manipulated the whole proceedings for his own ends also appears not unlikely. Unless we assume the Herodotos's version of event is grossly distorted, we should accept that references to both Salamis and the wooden wall appeared in the oracle the Athenians originally received.
Was the wooden wall a real or a figurative wall? Those who were expert in the art of interpretation advised flight overseas and avoidance of battle at Salamis, but Themistocles carried the Assembly with his view that the wooden wall meant the fleet and the epithet ‘holy’ made ‘Salamis’ favourable to Athens. The matter came to a vote. Themistocles won, and a decree was passed stipulating that the Athenians would engage the barbarian by sea with all their forces. That Themistocles was able to turn the debate is to the credit of his audience, as well as to his own. Athenians intended to evacuate Attica and use Salamis as naval base during the war, a strategy suggested by the use to which the island of Lade had been put by the Ionians during their revolt from Persia. Decision-making in democratic Athens was heavily influenced by concern to establish and to follow the will of the gods. Following the will of the god would always be the same as following the will of the community. The oracle would make some difficult decisions easier by reframing the issues at stake, and give the appearance of external authority for those decision, making it easier to reconcile members of society to them.

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