한국 현대시에 나타난 이산(離散, diaspora): 두만강, 현해탄, 38선을 넘어선 유민(遺民, 流民, 유民)의식

저작시기 2003.01 |등록일 2004.10.29 파일확장자어도비 PDF (pdf) | 16페이지 | 가격 5,100원
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발행기관 : 국제비교한국학회 수록지정보 : Comparative Korean Studies / 11권 / 1호 / 1 ~ 16 페이지
저자명 : 김승희 ( Seung Hee Kim )

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The problem of diaspora in modern Korean poetry is a tragic theme generated from Japan`s Colonization of Korea and the liberation, the chaos after the liberation brought about by ideological conflicts between the left and the right, and the disasters of modern history which ranged to the partition of Korea. The theme is characterized by the world view of the ruined people, migrants, and pathfinders, who lost their permanent residents, and by the perpendicular imagination like “bird”. I consider the problem of diaspora which ranges from the colonization and the liberation to the period of consolidation of the partition, the Cold War and to the period of partition covering the present, dividing it into two categories: the first diaspora and the second diaspora. The first diaspora indicates that under the Colonization they lived the life with no home to return, due to leaving home either for survival or for learning new studies, to Manchuria or Japan, and etc. It may be the diaspora which supposes Duman river or Kenkainada as the border. Kim Donghwan`s “Gukkyungui bam(The night of the border)”, Lim Hwa`s Hyeonhaetan, Lee Yongak`s “Dumanganga, neo uriui gang-a(Duman river, you, our river)”, Sim Yeonsu`s “Manju(Manchuria)” and some poems show this. Kim Donghwan, Lee Yongak, and Sim Yeonsu sing for the ruined people and migrants who escapes from the Duman river for survival and lived around the Manchuria. Lim Hwa sings for the young pathfinders who crossed the Hyeonhaetan and headed for the modern age of Japan and the culture of the empire, or the ruined people and migrants who came in Japan to earn money. The texts showing the first diaspora are figured with different implications, according to the historical and geopolitical characters of Duman river and Hyeonhaetan that are the borders of diaspora. The aspects of this diaspora share the attempt to escape from the exploitation and poverty, in terms of the dimension of survival itself. However, the diaspora across Duman river has more reasons for pursuing national consciousness. In comparison with that, the diaspora across Hyeonhaetan reveals more enthusiasm for the modernity and imperial culture. The second diaspora refers to two cases: the case in which after the liberation, they moved from the south to the north or in turn by the ideological decision and could not return home because of the division and led the life of longing for home; the case in which they chose political system and moved during the Korean war. Leaving home and losing home of poets such as Lim Hwa, Gu Sang, Kim Jongsam, Park Namsu and Jeon Bonggun illustrate this. Lim Hwa was executed by shooting as the scapegoat for structuring the governance of Kim Ilsung after the war, even though he went to the north according to his ideology and devoted himself enthusiastically to the construction of socialistic country before the war broke out. During the war, he came back to Seoul and tried to find his daughter. However, he couldn`t meet her so he wrote a poem “Neo eodie innenya(Where are you?)”, retreating with the People`s Army. The poem is really moving because it has the typical characteristics of disaspora text showing the scream of those who left their home, and those who lost their home, and soldiers, who were all driven to the death`s doorstep by the history and the war, and could not know whether their families were dead or not. However, it is an actually tragic diaspora text because it is the turning point where the downfall of Lim hwa begins. Poems of the poets who crossed the 38th parellel into South Korea- for example, Gu Sang`s “Chotoui si(the poem of burnt ground)” , “Gaeul byungsil(a ward of autumn)”, Park Namsu`s Seojjok, sileun dongjjok(The West, indeed, The East) and Jeon Bonggun`s “Dol(stone)” series - reveal the image of bird. This image seems to express the desire for returning home with crossing the border of tuboo established by the grand discourse of history and ideology and

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