Purpose: This study aimed to investigate the effect of progressive speed increase during underwater gait training on stroke patients’ balance, gait, and endurance, as well as to compare the effects of underwater gait training and land gait training.Methods: Subjects were randomly allocated into three groups. Underwater gait training group (n=10), land gait training group (n=9) and control group (n=9). The groups performed their respective programs as well as conventional physical therapy 3 times/week for 8 weeks. The patients were assessed before and after the experiment in terms of the Berg balance scale, characteristics of gait, and 6-minute walking test.Results: The beneficial effect perceived in the speed increase underwater gait training (UGT) group was significantly greater than in the groups who were trained with speed increase land gait training (LGT) group, and the control group regarding the following aspects: the Berg balance scale, the affected step length, the affected stride length, and the 6-minute walking test (p<0.05). The LGT group showed a more significant effect on the Berg balance scale, the affected step length, the affected stride length, and the 6-minute walking test (p<0.05), compared to the control group. Furthermore, the UGT group showed a significantly greater effect on the gait speed when compared to the control groupb (p<0.05).Conclusion: This study shows that progressive UGT is effective in improving balance, gait, and endurance in stroke patients. Therefore, we believe that progressive UGT may be used as a method for general physical therapy in patients with stroke.