F. Rzewski의 36 Variations on ‘The People United Will Never Be Defeated!’에 관한 분석 연구

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서지정보

발행기관 : 한국피아노학회 수록지정보 : 피아노음악연구 / 11권
저자명 : 신지은 ( Shin Jieun )

한국어 초록

프레데릭 안토니 제프스키(Frederic Anthony Rzewski, 1938-현재)는 20세기 후반, 미국 음악을 대표하는 작곡가 중 한 사람으로, 1960년대 이후 현대음악과 청중간의 소통부재라는 현실은 제프스키에게 음악적 소통이라는 과제를 안겨주었다. 그로 인해 그는 음악적 절충주의를 선택하여 공통의 정치적 이념을 소통의 한 방편으로 삼아 작곡활동에 전념하였다. <단결한 민중은 결코 패배하지 않는다!’에 의한 36개의 변주곡>(36 Variations on 'The People United Will Never Be Defeated!, 1975)은 변주곡이라는 전통적인 형식을 택하면서 Ortega의 민중가요를 주제로 삼았으며, 그에 기초한 36개의 변주로 구성되어 있다. 본 연구를 위하여, 현존하는 작곡가인 제프스키의 생애를 살펴보고, 정치적 참여음악과 그가 전달하고자 한 정치적 메시지를 어떠한 방식으로 담아내었는지 알아보았다. 그리고 이 곡의 주제로 사용된 칠레민중가요 < El pueblo unido jamas sera vencido >의 구조를 분석하고, 36변주들과의 관계에 대해서 살펴보았다. 마지막으로 약 1시간이 소요되는 대규모의 변주곡에서 나타난 다양한 음악어법과 그러한 다양성에서 야기될 수 있는 산만함을 절충시킨 제프스키의 음악적 어법, 즉, 다양성과 통일성을 절충시킨 그의 음악어법에 대해 파악하였다. 본 연구를 통해 고전과 현대, 조성과 무조성, 음악적 실험 중에서도 소통의 가능성, 더 나아가 음악어법의 다양성과 통일성, 이러한 요소들을 절충하여 하나로 융합한 이 곡은, 형식적 완성미와 더불어 이 시대의 음악적 정수를 담아내었기에 이 곡의 예술적 가치는 더욱 상승됨을 확인할 수 있었다.

영어 초록

Frederic Anthony Rzewski(1938-Present) is one of the representative composers of the American music in the latter part of the 20<sup>th</sup> century. He displayed the tendency of serialism in his music in the beginning and concentrated on experimental music through electronic music as well. However, the reality of the lack of communication between the modern music and audiences since the 1960's presented Rzewski the task of musical communication. Accordingly, he decided to choose musical eclecticism and immersed himself in composition activities with the common political ideologies as a means of communication. “36 Variations on ‘The People United Will Never Be Defeated!’” was composed with the popular song of Ortega as the theme, while taking the traditional format of variation and is set of 36 variations. The 36 variations are organically composed with the principal melodies on the foundation of the 6 categories of musical characteristics (Simple events, Rhythms, Melodies, Counterpoints, Harmonies and Combinations of all these) as the framework. For this research, the life of the composer, Rzewski, who still lives, was divided into 3 stages, namely, the era of the initial musical education as the 1<sup>st</sup> stage, the era of overseas study and activities in Europe with prominent display of musical experiments as the 2<sup>nd</sup> stage and the era until present in which he actively engaged as composer and educator including political music as the 3<sup>rd</sup> stage, and the characteristics of his music in each of these stages were examined. Secondly, “36 Variations on ‘The People United Will Never Be Defeated!’” is a representative musical work of Rzewski that conveys political message. Accordingly, the relationship between music and politics in the history of music was examined along with the investigation of what other musical works that participate in politics exist. Moreover, the format through which Rzewski manages to infuse political message he wants to convey into his music was looked into. Thirdly, the background and significances of ‘El pueblo unido jamas sera vencido’, a popular song of Chile and the theme of this musical work of Rzewski, were examined. Furthermore, the structure of the theme was analyzed and the relationships with the 36 variations were examined along with inquiries made on how the rhythm of the theme and motif of the melodies were used in the variation. Fourthly, this research strove to find out how he established the formative framework in the classical format of variation for such a large scale music that lasts approximately 1 hour, what methods were used to contain a diverse range of musical expressions in his works and how he unified the distractions that can be induced out of diversity into a single musical piece by making compromise by using which musical expressions. Moreover, the musical expressions of Rzewski that compromised diversity and unity of his music were discerned. As the results, the following issues were confirmed through this research. Firstly, Rzewski had access to an extensive range of musical expressions that range from classics to modern through the best musical education and it can be seen that he chose the traditional format of variation in order to express them in a single piece of music. Secondly, Rzewski attempted to share political incidents that were highlighted in given era with the audiences and communicate with the audiences by conveying political ideologies through music. For this purpose, he not only used ‘El pueblo unido jamas sera vencido’ as the principal melody but also cited the melodies of 2 other popular songs, namely, 'Bandiera Rossa' and ‘Solidaritatslied’. These 3 melodies have the significances of the resistance and solidarity of the people, and continuously revealed in various formats at various locations in the variations. Thirdly, the 6 musical characteristics (Simple events, Rhythms, Melodies, Counterpoints, Harmonies and Combinations of all these) that he proposed, were used as musical expressions for the creation of a diverse range of variations and, furthermore, it can be seen that these factors are playing important role in achieving a compromise between diversity and unity. That is, these factors are not only used as the material for demonstration of a diverse range of musical expressions of the 20<sup>th</sup> century, for example, pointillism, minimalism, citation of melodies, combination of tonality and atonality, effect of jazz idiom, impromptu music and aleatoric music, etc. through the 36 variations, but also played important role in unifying all these things by organically combining and compromising them. Through this research, it was possible to confirm that the artistic value of this music that merged various factors including classics and modern, tonality and atonality, possibility of the communication among musical experiments and, moreover, diversity and unity of musical expressions through compromise, since it contained the quintessence of music of this era along with the formative aesthetics of completeness.
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