程朱學的思維方式與社會網的可持續性的正當化之邏輯機制

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2017.12.20
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2017.12
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발행기관 : 성균관대학교 유교문화연구소 수록지정보 : Journal of Confucian Philosophy and Culture / 23권
저자명 : 김연재 ( Kim Yon-jae )

한국어 초록

本論文集中闡明從社會網的眺望上如何能勾確立關於社會體系的程朱學的邏輯正當化。其論點就是“可持續性”的原理。可持續性的原理來自現代社會所爭論的“可持續發展”的生態學觀念。儒家從人的存在上揭示整個世界的觀點, 卽在一個創造的世界上有某種本原, 從中進行一系列派生的統一過程。這個世界觀反映於社會的構造和可持續的體系。據此, 本論文從三重的範疇上揭示一個正當化程朱學的可持續性原理的過程。三重的範疇就是天理、體用一源及理一分殊。?們具有互相密切的關系。首先, 天理作爲一個體系的規律性理念, 成爲從人的關系上發現的正義的名分。天理發揮的變動性方式就是體用一源。體用一源表現爲某種人生及社會上存續的適合性的關系。這種適合性的關系在現實上作動的構造就是理一分殊。理一分殊爲社會網的指向性提供某種統一的原理。這種原理是從複雜多變的個體的、集團的關系上發揮的, 具有有機性的、整體性的、繼續性的。所以, 從邏輯的次元來看, 天理和體用一源最終歸結到理一分殊。這裏, 理一分殊能勾發揮一個正當化可持續性體系的程朱學的邏輯機制。?提供一個共存和協調的開放地平, 卽從個體和集團、理論和實踐、理想和現實等的統合關系上不斷創發的秩序意識的境界。這個地平, 與其說是“實體”的原理作動的, 毋寧說是“實在”的原理作動的。在不斷變化的實在世界上能勾繼續維持一個走向自我實現的道德規範的健全性體系。可以說, 這個可持續的世界才能發揮一個“正義的道德化”和“道德的正義化”的原則。

영어 초록

This paper examines how a system of justice can be established in the Neo-Confucian School of Cheng-Zhu 程朱學 from the perspective of social networks. The keyword is the principle of sustainability, which stems from the ecological concept of “sustainable development.” For Neo-Confucianists, the world, which is represented as myriad things under heaven and on earth, is a coherent whole with a certain origin and unitary processes. This world-view is reflected in the sustainable operations of its social structure. The process of justifying the sustainability within this worldview can be approached from three categories: tianli 天理 (Heavenly Principle), tiyong yiyuan 體用一源 (one source of substance and function), and liyi fenshu 理一分殊 (one Principle and its multiple manifestations). One source of legitimacy in this system is expressed under the concept of the “Heavenly Principle.” In Neo-Confucian thought, it provides the basis for justice in human relations. Its mode of changeability is expressed as “one source of substance and function, ” which provides an organic quality of appropriateness to the human social relationships. As a result, the structure in which relationships are sustained is sometimes expressed as “one Principle and its multiple manifestations.” It provides a holistic unity to the orientation of social networks. These three categories reciprocally support one another, but the first two are integrated into the third (liyi fenshu). In particular, the third works implicitly as the basis for positing a unified total system, in the sense that the same principle is seen as being comprehensively maintained in several complex individual relationships. Here, the ecological concept of sustainability provides several useful suggestions for explicating a logical mechanism of justification within a Neo-Confucian system. The structure of sustainability can be symbolized as a web of social networks, according to which members in a community are suited to play their roles in each field and, on this basis, bring forth their maximal productive activity. Such a model preserves an open horizon of coexistence and cooperation for newly emergent order within a series of integral relationships between person and community, knowledge and practice, ideal and reality, etc. The Neo-Confucian system, therefore, concentrates upon a principle of “reality” rather than upon one of “entity.” Neo-Confucianists, while diverse in their thought, tended to share a common way of thinking within a social network. In a reality characterized by incessantly changing processes, they constructed a sound system for a moral canon of justice oriented toward self-realization (ziwo shixian 自我實現). As a consequence, the Neo-Confucian world-view has a logical, sustainable mechanism for both moralizing justice and justicizing morality.

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