한국전쟁 뒤 반공이데올로기 지형과 지식인의 자리 -1950년대 『사상계』의 사상-

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2017.09.07
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2017.09
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서지정보

발행기관 : 수선사학회 수록지정보 : 사림(성대사림) / 61권
저자명 : 최규진 ( Choi Kyu-jin )

영어 초록

The Korean War, both a civil war and an international war, was a historical momentum that resulted in the eventual consolidation of the two antagonistic regimes of the nation-state on the Korean peninsular. It made a huge cultural impact on the both societies, as well as socio-political impact. The subsequent regime competition was a dominant phenomenon of the post-war period. And the regime competition meant a “cultural war.” The fierce strifes between the left and the right, and the subsequent war, produced a huge number of victims by ideological struggles. Thus, post-war intellectuals of South Korea had an inherent fear of the ideology, but in that unique context, the intellectual magazine, Ssasanggye, or the World of Ideologies, emerged. Sasanggye was essentially a contradictory project in that the contradictory trends co-existed. And it was impossible to produce any coherent set of ideology in a turbulent vortex of competition between nationalism, liberalism, democracy and anti-communism. However, from a broad historical view, the Sasanggye produced and maintained a certain discourse framework. The leading intellectuals from North Korea led the trend of the discourse, though anti-communism and liberal democracy were the fundamental framework of Sasanggye`s ideological perspective. In a chaotic and traumatic post-war society, the task of the intellectuals around the Sasangye, was to clarify the meaning of anti-communism and legitimate liberal democracy. This study sets it an objective to pursue the development of the historical consciousness of the intellectuals around Sasanggye. It is essential to dig into the root of their ideological perception expressed through their historical perception of the post-war anti-communism. These intellectuals were never free from their own experience of the fierce opposition between Soviet Union and the United States, the Korean War, and the Anti-Communism of Rhee Shingman regime. The perception of the Cold War and Anti-Communism by these intellectuals was both the spontaneous conviction and sentimental structure as refugees from North Korea. However, these intellectuals pursued rather relatively active responses in two aspects in spite of harsh reality. Firstly, though they accepted anti-communism as a norm of value, they tried to fill the vacancy of formal democracy by defining their own perception of freedom and democracy, sometimes daring to confront the regime`s ideological blindness. Secondly, this unique group of intellectual tried to secure a knowledge hegemony through the mechanism of their own enlightenment. As Sasanggye confined its framework within Cold-war liberalism, the discussion of class or social inequality was often a taboo or rather limited. Sasanggye hardly dealt with women`s question. Their own modernization project excluded workers, peasants, and women. However, in the course of pursuing liberal ideals, cracks and difference emerged, and under the Rhee Shingman`s dictatorship, the tension between the knowledge hegemony and the state power loomed large increasingly.

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