논문 : 로마 공화정 말기의 " 종교 religio " 와 " 미신 superstitio " 개념

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Cicero`s De Divinatione, which is thought to be written about 44 BC, consists of the criticisms against the divinatory practices of the Late Roman Republic. Cicero criticised divination as belonging not to religion (religio) but to superstition (superstitio). To understand the reason why divination was excluded from religio in De Divinatione, we need to trace back the meaning of religio and superstitio in the Roman Republic. According to the etymological analysis of E. Benveniste, religo had been used to refer to a certain scrupulous feeling which was related to omina (omens). Benveniste suggested that religio had been a word, which had something to do with divination. It meant not only the worship of gods (cultus deorum) but also the practices to know god`s will through some divinatory methods. Superstitio had been also used to designate certain phenomena that were related to divination, especially to prediction and clairvoyance. However, the concept of foretelling or foreseeing, which had been included in the meaning of superstitio, was very strange to the Romans. From the Roman`s point of view, the operation of divination were not the vivid and concrete predictions of the future, but used exclusively to determine whether or not an action about to be performed had the sanction of the gods. Therefore, the Romans had always been sensitive to and despised other forms of divination as strange and foreign, and the word superstitio had come to take on a negative meaning. Evident in De Divinatione is that Cicero`s criticism against divination mainly falls upon foreign divinatory practices. The list of the divinatory practices, which are criticized in Book Ⅱ, almost consists of foreign non-Roman divinations. We may suspect a dichotomy between `we` and `others,` `our religion` and `their superstition.` Cicero might have criticized divination because there were too many non-Roman originated divinations and they encroached on traditional Roman religious practices. In this context, religio meant traditional Roman customs which were called mos maiorum and superstitio meant religious practices which were strange to the Roman idea and which implied something that was odd and sinister.

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