논문 : 스파르타 ' 혁명 ' 과 클레오메네스 3 세

저작시기 2000.01 |등록일 2003.07.10 파일확장자어도비 PDF (pdf) | 26페이지 | 가격 6,100원
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저자명 : 윤진(Jin Yoon)

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From the first half of the 4th to the middle of the 2nd century B.C., there were dozens of attempts to change the social and economic position by way of revolution in the Greek World. And those were characteristic phenomena in that era. Those were called stasis in historical materials, and their fundamental claims were `cancelation of debts` and `redistribution of land`. These claims were derived from `social polarity`, which have caused social conflicts from the end of the Classical period. These socio-economic struggles were limited to one pelis generally, but there were occasions of penetration of `Revolutionary Actions`. The `Spartan Revolution` was the representative example: a radical socio-economic reform by Agis N, Cleomenes III; and Nabis affected greatly the most of Peloponnesos states. Modern scholars define these actions as the `Spartan Revolution`, for they regard it as belonging to the category of the `Social Revolution` of Greece after the fourth century B. C. But we thought that these revoltionary kings` actions should be defined as `political revolution` rather than `social revolution`. Because their aims were to overturn and transform thoroughly the traditional system of Sparta and to accord with the sircumstances of Hellenistic era. Revolutionary kings sought their state`s incorporation into the Hellenistic World through the reforms, not the `glorious isolation` of the Classical age. For that reason, `ancestral constitution`, the slogan of reforms, came to be modified inevitably. Decreased Spartans were not enough to rebuild and revive the population of classical Sparta, so the incorporation of the dominated class, including heilotai, perioikoi, mothakes, etc., was inevitable. Lycurgan system, in which non-Spartans support Spartans, was no more effective and, consequently, the distinction of classes became ambiguous. Direction of reform was to break down the `ancestral constitution` essentially. Enlargement of Spartan citizenry was not enough to carry on reform. Political structure had to be transformed into the `Hellenistic monarchy` or `tyranny` which allows powerful leadership. In these respects, we can find the essential features of `Spartan Revolution` in the acts of Cleomenes : a connection with Hellenistic monarchy, Egypt according with internal reform and the intensification of royal authority etc. For this connection, he could strengthen the accomplishment of reform and solve the economic problem, the shortage of war expenditure. Besides, by making the atmosphere of wartime, he could get side-affect that unify the internal public opinion and make ease about purge and expulsion of the opposing party.

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