공동연구 : 공화정 후기에서 제정 전기 사이 로마 상류층에서 ' 여성해방 ' 의 실제

저작시기 1997.01 |등록일 2003.07.10 파일확장자어도비 PDF (pdf) | 33페이지 | 가격 6,800원
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발행기관 : 한국서양고전학회 수록지정보 : 서양고전학연구 / 11권 / 325 ~ 357 페이지
저자명 : 김경현(Kyung Hyun Kim)

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Female emancipation is now a very widely accepted topos among the modern historians of the Roman family and Roman women. What is usually intended to refer to by that modernizing phrase is that an increasing number of women, at least in the upper-class of Rome during the late Republic and the early Empire, was allowed the chance to be free from whatever kind of male`s control and intervention (either patria potestas or manes mariti or auctoritas tutoris), conducting at discretion their own financial,marital and even sexual affairs. Some modern scholars even postulated that the spread into the leading Roman society of humanistic or individualistic idea of Hellenistic origin was the background of that liberating movement. And others, treading in the footsteps of the Roman misogynistic litterati, used to think of the phenomenon in association with the moral deterioration leading to the ultimate collapse of the Roman empire. This paper aims to show that the image of the emancipated Roman women is an outcome of tendentious or conventional over-simplification of `something of the true complexity` and that beneath the currents flowing on the surface apparently towards independence and freedom of some women were still strong undercurrents running to the opposite direction in terms of their over-all social position. Needless to say, the undercurrents are more worth while of historians` attention than the surface currents, for the former are related with the social structures of long--duration compared to the latter consisiting mainly of ephmeral events. In fine, this paper tries to restore the complex realities instead of simplified modern myth by giving counterbalancing evidences against the so-far lopsided image of the Roman women. In the first chapter, I have shown that the Roman males, while having inherited from the Greek predecessors the gender concept which compells women to be secluded thoroughly from the political activities, namely public domain and to be confined to the innermost corner of a house, allowed their ladies some public visibility, that is let them to show themselves in the public space and even to meddle in public affairs in the period in question and that the `public visibility` of Roman women is, by and large, responsible for the image constructed by modern scholars of their `emancipation`. The next two chapters attempt to place the forms of control over Roman women in historical perspective and to prove the immutability in substance of women`s social condition. Unlike what many scholars have assumed in proposing the idea of female emancipation, the change in marriage form from the one manu to the one sine manu did not necessarily result in the slackening of the traditional regimentation of women. On the contrary, sine manu marriage tended to be preferred as a part of family strategy especially in the upper-class, in which women were regarded as only convenient stakes and pawns in political games for promoting the interests of their natal family. And even when finally the family strategy brought itself to a paradoxical point owing to its excessive employment, where the raison d`etre and ethics about family and marriage began to be put in serious doubt, the state`s policy of intervention as a remedy for the social desease effected nothing but an institution alisation of women`s duty to stay in marriage and task of reproduction or, to put it otherwise, legislation of women`s fate to be in unending circulation in marriage market, It is interesting to note the subtle shift that occurred in the concept of traditional female virtue of univira in the altered situation where remarriage could not anymore be regarded as undesirable fate for a respectable and felicitous woman: namely it tended to be applied far more frequently to those women faithful to their husband at least for the duration of marriage than, as had been before, only to castitae viduae. In the final chapter, I re-examine another strong basis for the a

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