논문 : 『 일리아스 』 에 나타난 네 영웅의 죽음

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저자명 : 강대진(Dae Jin Kang)

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The subject of the Iliad is of course the wrath of Akhilleuse it deals mainly with the cause of the wrath, its originally expected course, its turning-around and the unexpected consequences. The most unexpected and most important result is the death of the wrathful hero himself. But though repeatedly predicted and remembered, his death is not accomplished in this epic. The poet shows the series of death, which leads to his, but at the climax the expected death is omitted. It is so, because the main interest of the poet is the human condition, i.e. the man before the death fate. This can be ascertained also by the fact, that not battle scenes or actions but the reactions of the characters are emphasized in this war epic. Though not directly presented, the death can be quite vividly pictured by the readers, because there is a pattern of death description, which is well modelled in the cases of the other three heroes: Sarpedon, Patroklos and Hektor. These three heroes are related to each other by the sequence of death, and their ends show many common factors: foreshadowings and anticipations of death, exact prediction or contrary prediction of impending death, wish for saving and its rejection, intervention of deity at the final instant, the last words, fierce battle around the fallen body, and extraordinary funeral. In effect, these three deaths are the anticipation of Akhilleus`. So having left the very death-scene of our main hero to reader`s imagination, the poet goes to show us the man who came now back to human society and lives still in spite of the death fate that approaches apparently and can anytime fall to him. The sequential deaths of these four heroes make evident one of the principles, with which the poet controls the battle scenes, namely the balance between the two opposite parties. These heroes are all killed as victims of blood vengeance; there falls at first a Trojan, then a Greek, then again a Trojan, finally a Greek. The first two heroes are in place of the latter two; Patroklos goes out to battlefield in stead of Akhilleus, he wants to fight with Hektor, but insteads he come to fell Sarpedon. And two of them are of divine parent; one belongs to the Trojan party, the other to the Greek. So one can say that there is a scale of the poet which is comparable with that of Zeus. The revenge relay has small preceding participants also, that is, a spare horse and a charioteer; Akhilleus` death is, in fact, the final destination of the ever growing series of victim exchange. This gas not without parallels. The plan of Zeus reveals itself little by little. And the details of Akhilleus` death become clearer and clearer with lapse of time. We can see also the series of petition and of hesitation, which come mixed together in the case of Hektor. And all these instances stand in relation to Akhilleus. The death of Akhilleus is the center, to which all the developments are orientated. But the direct description of it is not given. This is the natural consequence of the great poet`s interest, which is focused on the human condition, not on action-or battle

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