논문 : 아레오파고스 의회의 구성

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There have been largely two problems about membership of the boule of the Areopagos. The first problem is whether or not the Areopagos already consisted of nine ex-archons in the pre-Solonian period. Historians have agreed that after Solon, membership of the Areopagos consisted of nine former-archons. The second problem is whether or not the nine incumbent archons attended the boule of the Areopagos. In terms of thess problems, we have three questions to be examined as follows: 1) The membership of the boule of the Areopagos before Solon 2) The membership of the boule of the Areopagos after Solon 3) Whether or not the nine incumbent archons attended the boule of the Areopagos 1. According to Plutarch. Solon 19, 1, Solon lgislated the nine archons of each year into the boule of the Areopagos. This statement of Plutach has been thought to be refuted by the phrax in the Ath. Pol. 3, 6, which historians interpreted as following: the election of the archons was by birth (aristindex) and by wealth (ploutinden), from whom the members of the Areopagos were appointed (kathistanto). The phrase in the Ath. Pol: 3$gt; 6, however, gives some difficulties for such interpretation. It is not clear whether the archons referred in this phrase were ex-archons or the incumbent ones. Futhermore, the relative sentence could be interpreted differently from the interpretation which has supported by historians up to the present. The word $quot;from whom`?does not necessarily refer to $quot;the archons$quot;, but can be The Composition of Areopagos Membership related to the`adverbs $quot;by birth(aristinden)$quot; and $quot;by vteealth(ploutinden)$quot;. It means $quot;from the aristocrats aad the rich$quot; which- is derived from the two adverbs (sckema kata to nooufneno). And the verb` $quot;appoint (kathistanto)$quot; could be regarded as the middle voice with the meaning of active, and not the passive voice. Thus the meaning of the sentence is not that the members of the Areopagos` consisted` of nine ex-archons, but that the membership of the Areopagos appointed (the archons)` among (ee) the aristocrats and the rich. This interpretation of the Ath. Pol. 3, 6 coincides with the contents of the Ath. Pol. 8, 2 that the boule in the Areopagos appointed the archoris, including the nine archons, in the pre-Solonian period, and also vPith the Plutarch, Solon, 19, 1 that Solon legislated the archons of each year into the boule of the Areopagos. 2. After the legislation of Solon, the nine archons of each year attended the boule of the Areopagos. But it is not clear whether or not the membership of the Areopagos from the aristocrats and the rich in the pre-Soloniaa period was eliminated. There are some evidences, written in the Hellenistic and Roman period, which defined the membership of the Areopagos as aristocrats, the rich, and the person of virtues, and not as ex-archons (cf. Aristid. 13, 193: Athen. Deipxosophist. 6, 255f.: Maxim. Philosopk. F.G., v.4, pp.16-17 [and Philoch. F.328, F.20]: Souda, s.v. Areopagites). Although it is not clear to which period these definitions belonged, these do not necessarily coincide with the natures of ex-archons who could be choosed by lot from the classes of not only pentacosiomedimnoi and hippeis but also zeugitai. Especially in the epoch of Rome, there are enough evidences to indicate that the membership of the Areopagos was not necessarily the ex-archons, but was the aristocrats or the rich. 3. In the period after the legislation of Solon, and at least before the beginning of the Roman period, it seems that not only the ex-archons but also the incumbent archons attented the boule of the Areopagos. In the Ghe, Ja-Youag. statmenx of Plutarah, Solon, 19, i, it ig not .clear whether the archans of each year. referred to the ex or the incumbent. And some evidences refer fo the condition to attepd the Areopagos as . being nine archons .who passed ``dokimasia$quot;, the examination. for the appointment of the arch

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