ㆍ발행기관 : 한국피아노학회ㆍ수록지정보 : 피아노음악연구 / 10권 ㆍ저자명 : 김여진 ( Kim Yeu Jin )
신고전주의의 영향으로 옛것과 새것을 세련되게 조화시킨 스트라빈스키의 피아노곡 『Serenade in A』는 복잡한 화성과 애매모호한 음악구조 때문에 많은 피아니스트들로부터 과소평가되어져 왔으며 특히 국내에서는 문헌자료나 논문을 찾아보기 힘든 작품이다. 스트라빈스키 피아노 음악에 대해 폭넓은 이해, 정확한 해석, 그리고 심도 있는 연주를 위해 문헌연구가 필요하다고 본다. 스트라빈스키가 1920년대 피아노라는 악기에 집중한 역사적 이유와 이 곡의 탄생 배경을 살펴보고, 그의 관현악곡들을 통해 즐겨 사용하는 음악어법들을 확인하여 이 곡에 적용시켜 곡의 구조를 분석한다. 곡의 분석을 통해 프레이징을 이해하고, 페달, 터치, 악상, 템포 등과 관련하여 작곡가의 의도를 파악한다. 역사적인 관점에서 신고전주의의 등장, 반복된 악기편성과 편곡과정들, 플레이엘회사와의 계약관계, 악화된 재정 상황 등의 이유로 스트라빈스키는 1920년대 피아노곡 작곡에 몰두하게 된다. 특히 마지막 이유인 경제적 결핍으로 인한 피아니스트로서의 활동을 위해 콘서트용 피아노 레파토리가 필요하였다. 그리하여 탄생한 곡 중 하나가 바로 『Serenade in A』이다. 음악 구조적인 측면에서는 4개의 짧은 악장 구성이나 대위법적 진행들 모두 바로크 조곡의 영향임을 보여준다. 반면에 음악어법은 전통적인 화성에서 벗어나 온음음계, 8음음계, 반음계를 많이 사용하였고 조성축을 사용하여 두 개의 조성을 동시에 나타냄으로서 무조음악과는 다르게 애매모호하게나마 조성감이 느껴지는 그만의 독특한 음색을 창출하였다.
In comparison with his well-known orchestral works, fewer than twenty keyboard works of Igor Stravinsky (1882-1971) has been underestimated from many scholars and pianists for a long time because of its complicated harmonic intricacy and ambiguous musical structure. Domestically, it is very hard to find research papers and articles in terms of Stravinsky`s piano music. Thus, tracing his imaginative effort deserves investigation. It will provide us a wide range of musical comprehension, helps achieve a better interpretation, and then create an effective performance. This paper will exam three aspects of stravinsky`s Serenade in A, focusing on its historical context, his own harmonic usages, and an analysis of its musical structure. First of all, it is essential to explore why Stravinsky focused on composing piano works during the 1920s. In historical context, there were four distinct reasons: 1)important change in musical aesthetics during this time affected his musical decision. After the war, younger composers such as Bartok, Poulenc, Saite, Hindemith including Stravinsky were tired of nineteenth- century Romanticism and Expressionism because of its tendency to exaggerate musical gesture and express its too subjective emotion. They began to turn their eyes to the music of the Baroque period in order to find new styles and forms. Thus, they revived earlier concise form and then successfully utilized these forms within extended tonality, modality, or atonality. 2)his frequent writing of piano parts in ensemble works led him to thoroughly absorbed in piano music. When he composed 『The Wedding』, he had difficulty finding good performers in the aftermath of the war. In the process of trying to many different kinds of instrumentation, he reconsidered a piano as a pitched percussion. Moreover, he had transcribed 『Three Movements from Petrushka』 for piano solo. Through a series of piano adaptation, his interest to piano writing had increased. 3)a six-year contract with the Pleyel company (piano manufacturer) had Stravinsky transcribing most of his major works for the Pleyela piano. Although the piano is mechanical instrument, it allowed him to take a close look at the piano. 4)his financial difficulties due to both economic constraints from Russia and no royalties from his scores forced him to turn towards a career as pianist and conductor. He had to compose piano works as part of repertories to perform in pubic. Secondly, In terms of his harmonic usages, Stravinsky uses diatonic collections, octatonic collections, or simultaneous combinations of the two instead of a traditional tonality. He avoided producing conventional harmonic sonority not only by inserting many foreign tones and chromatic elements but also by leading to many unresolved passages and lacks of accustomed harmonic continuity. He creates an idiosyncratic harmonic organization by the superimposition and juxtaposition of two different kinds of triads, which is called a tonal axis. Lastly, an analysis about 『Serenade in A』 shows how Stravinsky skillfully combined traditional and new musical usages. Although harmonic language is original and innovative, musical structure and texture exhibit influence of the Neoclassical period because of its simple form derived from Baroque suite and transparent piano texture of the second movement affected by Mozart sonata. Contrapuntal progression from two voices up to six voices can be found everywhere in the third movement. In conclusion, the piece reveals Stravinsky`s clear intentions to adapt his own musical idiom to conventional form. Through the analysis, we can find good clues with regards to performing issues. Despite no pedal indications throughout the piece, it is possible to use a pedal to cover many bigger chordal passages. With lack of pedal, this piece requires a less percussive quality and rather deeper sensibility due to legato and espress. marks. Stravinsky`s stand of anti-Romanticism seems to affect his dynamics. He minimized indications in his score, disagreeing with abuse of dynamic marks. Thus, the range of dynamics is narrow and written dynamic markings are sparse. Tempos are very clear because of the metronome markings. We can follow his marked tempo.