오경에 나타난 이스라엘 법 제도의 기원에 대한 연구

저작시기 2002.01 |등록일 2003.07.10 파일확장자어도비 PDF (pdf) | 26페이지 | 가격 6,100원
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저자명 : 정석규(Seok Gyu Jung)

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This paper analyzes the present form of Ex 18:13-26 rather than to reconstruct the hypothetical judicial model behind the text. This paper attempts to apply the form-critical method to the account of the judicial system in Ex 18:13-26, and to expose its structure, which holds the whole logically together. Through the structural analysis of the text, this paper shows the theme and intention of the present form of Ex 18:13-26. Moreover, this paper tries to expose the characteristic features of the judicial model described in Ex 18:13-26 by the comparative study to the judicial systems in Num 11:14ff. and Deut 1:1-18. The structural analysis of the present form of Ex 18:13-26 shows that the text emphasizes Moses` own speech concerning his judicial function (vv.15-16). In its structure, Jethro` s advice results from Moses` inefficient judicial act (v.13), and results in Moses` judicial reform (vv.24 - 26). Even with this flow of the text, Moses` only speech (vv. 15 -16) is emphasized by being placed at the center of this text in a chiasmus: (1) the statement of Moses` inefficient judicial act (v.13), (2) the report of Jethro` s accusation of Moses` inefficient judicial act (v.14), (3) the report of Moses` elucidation of his judicial role (vv. 15 - 16), (4/2` ) the report of Jethro` s instruction for Moses` efficient judicial system (vv.17-23), and (5/1`) the statement of Moses` execution of the efficient judicial system (vv.24-26). This chiastic structure manifests that Moses` own speech is the most important unit in understanding the main them of the text. Therefore, the extant form of Ex 18:13-26 focuses on judgment as the actualization of God`s will, and presents the judicial system as an efficient means to accomplish the basic purpose of judgment that Moses referred to in his speech (vv.15 - 16). The extant form of Ex 18:13-26 is echoed in two other Pentateuchal passages concerning the inception of the judicial system (Num 11:14ff.: Deut 1:9-18). Both Num 11:14ff. and Deut 1:9-18 are in parallel to Ex 18:13-26 in two main thematic concerns: (1) Moses` inability to bear the burden of the entire people (Ex 18:13-14, 18; Num 11:14; Deut 1:9, 12); and (2) Moses` sharing of the responsibilities of leadership with the assistant administrators (Ex 18:21-22, 25-26; Num 11:17; Deut 1:15-17). Even with these similarities, each of the three passages has its own peculiar emphasis, which will present some crucial clues in understanding the judicial system in Ex 18:13-26. The comparative study of the judicial model in Ex 18:13-26 exhibit three clues to its intention. First, the extant text emphasizes Moses` judicial role in organizing the new system. Moses is depicted as a mediator between the people, the litigants, and God, the ultimate judge. Second, the present form of Ex 18:13-26 shows the two stages of judicial procedure: (1) local courts presided over by the appointed judges, and (2) a central court presided over by Moses. The main purpose of the twofold judicial system is to establish a more enhanced judicial system to carry out Moses` judicial competency as the supreme judge. Third, the judicial account in Ex 18:13-26 intends to enfeeble the traditional tribal judicial authority or system by neglecting the tribal leader or tribal system. Therefore, the judicial account in Ex 18:13-26 strengthens the new judicial system for centralization by reinforcing the judicial function of Moses as the highest judge, enfeebling the organization of the traditional clan or tribal society, and adopting an innovative judicial system from the military organization.

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