초기 예언문학의 성립 - ' 엘리야전 ' 을 중심하여 -

저작시기 2000.01 |등록일 2003.07.10 파일확장자어도비 PDF (pdf) | 27페이지 | 가격 6,200원
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발행기관 : 한국기독교학회 수록지정보 : 한국기독교신학논총 / 18권 / 5 ~ 31 페이지
저자명 : 임상국(Sang Kook Lim)

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I am a full time lecturer at Methodist Theological Seminary. I received Ph.D in the Old Testament Studies from the Graduate School of Rikkyo University in Japan. The title of my dissertation is "The Socio-Political System of the Northern Kingdom and the Prophets` Criticism of It : Focusing on Elijah and Amos." One of my articles, "The Social Critique of Amos and `Covenant Code- appears in The Thought of the Prophets of Ancient Israel (Tokyo : Sinkyo Press, 1997). This study is founded upon the basic theological understanding that the prophets are those who lead the Israelite people toward a right relationship between Yahweh and His people, delivered the law of Yahweh to them, and coordinated the conflicts among the people, and tried to deliver his people from the suffering caused by social injustices and economic exploitations. The main subject of the prophetic literature of the ancient Israel is the issue of the violation of Yahweh`s will by most monarchs and ruling elites of Israel. This study explores the formation of `Elijah-Narratives,` which is part of the early prophetic literature, focusing on 1 Kings 18 and 21. Elijah worked during the Omri-Dynasty of the northern kingdom of Israel in the nineth century B.C. The ruling system of the Omri-Dynasty was different from the traditional egalitarian principle of the Israelite community as based upon the will of Yahweh. The Omri-Dynasty imported the hierarchical socio-political system of the Canaanite-Phoenician city-states to the northern kingdom, and thereby evoked conflicts and confrontations among the members and classes of the Israelite community. Ch. 18 of 1 Kings witnesses the confrontation between Baal` s prophets and Yahweh`s prophet Elijah at Mt. Carmel. Elijah won the contest and put Baal` s prophets to death. Later, this portion of the prophetic literature was used to legitimize Jehu` s bloody coup d Etat. The story of Naboth` s Vineyard in ch. 21 of 1 Kings points to an instance of how the will of God for the land was violated by despotic kingly powers. Jezebel, the king`s wife from Phoenicia, actively involved in this incident. King Ahab and his wife Jezebel incited his men to raise perjuries against Naboth. In the end, Naboth was put to death and Ahab appropriated his vineyard. After the incident, Elijah confronted Ahab` s power for a long time. Ahab finally surrendered to Elijah. According to 1 Kings 21 : 27-29, Ahab repented of his sins. It is my argument that the early form of `The Code of Covenant` of the Omri-Dynasty in the nineth century B.C. was a product of the political compromise between Ahab and Elijah. The Casuistic Law(mishpatim) of `The Code of Covenant` accepted the DebtSlavery system in the interests of the ruling elites of Omri-Dynasty. Elijah` s concern for social justice, on the other hand, was reflected by the Apodeictic Law(debarim)` s inclusion in `The Code of Covenant.` The Apodeictic Law had significantly restrained the socio -politically oppressive system in Omri-Dynasty. It means a partial success of Elijah` s prophetic movement for social justice. `The Elijah-Narratives` can also be characterized as an ideological literature in that the scribes of Jehu -Dynasty who wrote them appealed to the authority of Elijah in order to justify Jehu` s bloody revolution. `The Elijah -Narratives` as a prophetic literature form only a part of the ideological literature written by the loyal scribes of Jehu. Still they turn out to be a very significant inspiration and source for the later prophetic movements, esp. for the critical movement of the eighth century B.C. prophets. They became a prototype for the classical prophetic literature in the eighth century B.C. We can find in `The Elijah-Narratives` an instance of the socio-political productivity and dynamics that the prophetic literatures in general have.

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