논문 : 미군정기 ( 1945 - 1949 ) 독일인 " 재교육 ( Reeducation ) 정책의 내용과 역사적 의미 " - 학교 제도를 중심으로 -

저작시기 2002.01 |등록일 2003.07.10 파일확장자어도비 PDF (pdf) | 32페이지 | 가격 6,700원
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발행기관 : 한국서양사학회 수록지정보 : 서양사론 / 74권 / 147 ~ 178 페이지
저자명 : 노명환(Meung Hoan Noh)

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Re-educational Policy in the Period of Military Government of the USA in Germany(1945-1949) and Its Historical Meaning Through this article the author aims to research above all, the question "what is the traditional school system of Germany and why the occupying power, USA, tried to reform this system fundamentally. How did US-Americans try to changer it? Namely what was the re-educational policy of USA for Germany in the occupation period after the World War Ⅱ. How did this re-educational policy influence today`s German educational system?" This research focused on the period from the end of the second World War to the beginning of the Federal Republic of Germany(1945-1949). The spacial object of the research targets the German area occupied by the USA. But it includes also the western part of Germany which became the Federal Republic of Germany afterwards. The traditional German school system represented the three-tract curriculum of "Volksschule,""Mittelschule" or "Realschule" and "Gymnasium." The graduates of "Volksschule" were going to be the ruled in society, while those of the "Mittelschule" were expected to be the middle class. The graduates of the Gymnasium could promote themselves to the university and used to be the leaders of the society. In a certain sense, this was the school system to establish and deepen the class differences in social structure. In the historical reality, the authoritative political leaders abused this school system as the instrument to control society. So this school system was criticised strongly by the progressive social force as the source of social discrimination and dictatorship. After the defeat of Germany in the Second World War, the Allied Powers especially the USA pursued for denazification and regarded the traditional school system as the structural cause of the Nazi system. Therefore, they wanted to reform it fundamentally with their efforts of the total reconstruction of Germany. But conflicts occurred between the group which regarded the planting of the USA educational system as the best reform for Germany, on the one had, and the group to emphasize the German initiatives on the other had. In the end, the USA military government tried to plant the USA educational policy in Germany. This caused the strong protests from the conservatives of Germany. After all, the USA reform policy to change radically the German school system failed in, mainly because of the deepening cold war. However, some original goals of the USA reform policy were realized afterwards under the leadership of West German governments. With the very successful democratization of German society, the school system also came to stand for social basis to produce specific professions without establishing and deepening social class structure.

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