Transformation of Higher Education and Dilemma of Creating New Men in the First Decade of Soviet Power. This paper deals with the experimentation of the Soviet government in the field of higher educational system and creation of new cadres associated with it. This paper originally attempts to relate the fluctuation of higher education policy of the Soviet government to the matter of treating "old technical intelligentsia," whose cooperation was necessary for management of the new socialist state. Lenin was not so determined in the orientation of transformation of higher education. he recognized the need to create "red cadres" loyal to the socialist government by transforming the education system. On the other hand, he felt the danger of alienating old intellectuals from the Soviet power if the transformation was carried out only with and emphasis of benefiting working class. As a result, he was vacillated between "hard" and "soft" line of the policy until the final days of his life. In his view, the Soviet government was not consolidated enough to stand on the support of red cares alone, which made it imperative to entice as many as old intelligentsia into the Soviet society. Lunacharskii, who was in the long run to lead the educational as well as cultural policy after Lenin`s death, also tried to find the middle road in establishing the higher educational policy. He was in the same position as Lenin in that he agreed with the contention that the cooperation of old intelligentsia was essential for the sustaining the Soviet power. But he was more adamant than Lenin in holding the belief that the transformation of education should not only serve to the strategy of economic development of the country, but also to the creation of new socialist men. From his perspective, the curriculum of higher educational institutions should not be composed in order to raise narrow-mined specialists. The new "Soviet men," he argued, should possess of wide fields of knowledge, which was necessary to become a "cultured man." Until the final day of his tenure at his office, when the demand for industrialization was set high in the party leadership, he did not belittle the importance of general education for the Soviet future cadres. It seems that both Lenin and Lunacharskii had a moderate stance in the orientation of transformation of higher educational system. But the dilemma in the process of transformation of higher educational system during the NEP period was that the social atmosphere did not allow the gradual transformative process as was suggested by two leader. From the other end of spectrum of the society, there was a criticism from hard line communists to the policy that strove to maintain the precarious balance between old and new intelligentsia. Many hard-minded communists thought it as betrayal of the revolution the high salary of the old technical intelligentsia and maintenance of their position in factories and governmental institutions. In spite of their attacks it was not possible to turn to the radical direction during the first half of the NEP, when the party leadership sought to maintain the balance between the two factions. But at the end of the NEP, when Stalin finally succeeded in getting rid of his rivals and establishing his own dictatorship, the experimentation during the NEP was not possible any more. In this context, the transformation of higher education and the policy of creating new men during the first decade of Soviet power provides us with another clue in explaining the emergence of Stalin`s regime of the 1930s.