논문 : 스톨리핀 , 전제정과 대신회의

저작시기 2002.01 |등록일 2003.07.10 파일확장자어도비 PDF (pdf) | 31페이지 | 가격 6,600원
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P. A. Stolypin, Tsarism, and Council of Ministers. The revolutionary pressure in 1905 forced Tsar Nicholas Ⅱ to establish not only the State Duma but also permanent Council of Ministers which was to coordinate activities of various ministries. However, while the power of the autocrat was still strong under the new system, Council of Ministers was in a limited condition to function as an independent and united cabinet in presiding over many important affairs. Under these circumstances, Stolypin, who was appointed Minister of the Interior in April 1906 and president of Council of Ministers later in July that year, believed that the government should actively reestablish the order and execute reform politics. In order to achieve this goal, he found it necessary to establish the united cabinet and promote its activities. Therefore, he tried to develop Council of Ministers into a strong government under his leadership and his efforts were successful because of his personal influence, Tsar`s credibility, and support from Stat Duma. He was able to maintain united activities of the government and increase the power of Council of Ministers in spite of strong oppositions from several ministers who prioritized each ministerial interests. Moreover, he was successful in showing public supports for the government policies by gaining the majority`s supports in the Third State Duma. This success gave him greater power and promoted reputation of the official government. However, this situation threatened the personal power of autocratic Tsar, even though it meant more effective operation of the government. As a result, the supporters of Tsarism blamed that a united cabinet and its powerful president was against the principles of autocracy. Tsar, who was obsessed with his autocratic power, though supporting Stolypin, was inclined to sympathize Stolypin`s enemy. Tsar vetoed Stolypin`s unimportant proposal that was passed by State Duma and State Council in 1909. In early 1911 Tsar permitted Stolypin`s enemies to vote against the key article of the Western Zemstvo Law in State Council. After these crises, Stolypin was assassinated by a double agent of secret police. After the death of Stolypin, the official government did not work effectively because Tsar bypassed Council of Ministers and its president. At the same time, ministers competed each other and made conspiracies to gain Tsar`s credibility and support instead of uniting themselves. The official government became divided and accordingly its status in Russian society was drastically plummeted. Conversely, Tsar`s personal power and imperial associates` unofficial influence over political affairs proportionately increased. Under these circumstances, Russian government lost its capability and unity that might cope with upcoming crises.

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