논문 : " 민족적 사회주의 " 의 정치에 나타난 대 격변의 기대와 새로운 독일 민족국가의 희망 , 1890 - 1903 / 4

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Expectations of Great Upheaval and Hopes for the New German National State, expressed in the Politics of "National Socialism", 1890-1903/4 A political group, so called the `Naumann circle` which was established by a former Lutheran Pastor and famous political journalist named Friedrich Naumann, represented a liberal and modern-minded group of people from the educated middle class (Bildungsbu¨rgertum) of Wilhelmine Germany. This group developed into a political party, named the Nationalsozialer Verein, Whose ideas were called "national socialism". With this ideology of "national socialism", the Naumann circle aimed for industrial development, social reform, and liberalization. That is, modernization of the German state and society. The purpose of this article is to analyze the relationship between Naumann and his political allies and their mental backgrounds. This article hopes to illustrate their political action in the context of their imaginations of a great political-social crisis. Rapid industrialization and far reaching social-cultural change of the Wilhelmine period increasingly deepened the anticipation of a crisis among Naumann and his political friends. It seemed impossible for them to escape from such a fundamental crisis. This mental state of crisis was politically expressed as follows: the fear of a socialist revolution, the hope for a `social empire`, and the expectation of a world war-namely the greatest war against England. These imaginations and corresponding feelings of fear and hope influenced the political decision-marking process in the Naumann circle. In that process their political action was characterized by a radical attitude and odd compounds of contradictory statements. Due to the fear of an up-coming socialist revolution, Naumann and his political friends criticized the east Elbean landed aristocracy (junker) and the conservative parties radically. They saw in these agrarian conservative parties radically. They saw in these agrarian conservatives the very reason for the development of alarming symptoms for the revolutionary crisi. Also, despite the intention of the Naumann circle to prevent the socialist revolution with the `social empire` program, their historical philosophy was the very sort of secular eschatology like that of the socialist concept of revolution. In its concept of a social empire, the Naumann circle combined the expectation of breakdown of the present political-social order with that of the new development of history. In this aspect the `social empire` concept of the Naumann circle functioned not only as a preventive measure against socialist revolution, but also as a strategy for the bourgeois revolution to revive the spirit of the failed revolution of 1848. the advent of the `social empire` meant a revolutionary event which was to be necessary in the process of establishing a new German national state. The future ideas of the Naumann circle show thus the specific character of the liberal concept of social modernization in the 19th century. The modernization theory in the 20th century suggests the process of social development without crisis. This process consists of a series of peaceful evolutions toward utopian society. However in the concept of modernization in the 19th century, crisis - combined with development toward a utopian society - was the most important element. Lastly, this article is related to the theoretical reflection for the more productive historiography. The historiography of the German Empire was up until now in subsequent perspective of what really happened. However I tried to show what did not happen - namely the hopeful and fearful future images conceived by Wilhelmine contemporaries which also played a important role in the historical process. A `historical reality` of the past is reconstructed more productively through the dialectical relationship among future imagination in the past, the consideration depended upon the historical experience in the

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