논문 : 네프기 ( 1921 - 1928 ) 학생집단의 생활양식 - 노동자 예비학부 ( rabochii fakul`tet ) 를 중심으로 -

등록일 2003.07.10 | 최종수정일 2016.07.18 파일확장자어도비 PDF (pdf) | 30페이지 | 가격 6,500원
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발행기관 : 한국서양사학회 수록지정보 : 서양사론 / 69권
저자명 : 박원용(Won Yong Park)

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This paper examines the way of life (byt) of rabfak students during the NEP era in order to critically evaluate the argument of formation of "new Soviet men." According to the description presented by the previous historiography, the rabfak students were "vanguards of proletarianizing higher educational institutions (vuzy)" with communist values in their mind. Based on archival materials and articles published in contemporary newspapers and magazines, this paper in detail depicts the lives of rabfak students and conveys their voices with a view of providing images different from those official conception. By doing so, it attempts to find another clue in explaining the emergence of Stalin`s Cultural Revolution and demise of conciliatory cultural policies implemented during the NEP period. Although the rabfak students were expected to play an important role in transforming the lives of students in the vuzy, they were in fact imbued with traditional life pattern that could be easily found among students from normal secondary educational institutions. They were not free from undisciplined behaviors, hooliganism, and lack of devotion to the construction of socialism. The reasons for their apathy to the appeal of the Soviet government were severalfold. First, the material condition of rabfak students was no better than that of students from other secondary institutions. Though it was true that they had a better chance of receiving the state subsidy than other groups of students when they entered the vuzy, the amount of state subsidy was not large enough to guarantee the escape of material poverty. As a result, they had to find additional means of support, the situation of which did not differentiate them from other groups of students in the vuzy. There was no material base that could make them proud as "the vanguards of proletarianizing the vuzy. In spite of the harsh material conditions that confronted with rabfak students, they were required to perform several political and social duties in the vuzy as well as outside the vuzy. In the vuzy they had to carry out political battels against professors and students who were still hostile to the cause of the Soviet government. Outside the vuzy they also had to accomplish several tasks such as teaching the peasants Marxist philosophy and participating in the production line for certain period during the semester, which led them to inadequate preparation for the study in the vuzy. Furthermore, some of them could not be assigned to the type of vuzy in compliance with their wish, because of consideration from party leadership to appoint "future Soviet cadres" in many fields of state management. Situations that the students had so many tasks to do and assignment to the vuzy contrary to their desire made them recognize that all of them did not have bright future which seemed to be plausible at the beginning. The combined effect of all these circumstances provided them with good excuses for their deviation from the expected role. After all, "the communist value" was not omnipotent in everyday lives of rabfak students. The instance of fife pattern of rabfak students during the NEP period aroused concern of radical communists who argued for reversal of conciliatory cultural policy during the NEP period. From their point of views the foundation of socialist state was risky as it was shown in the life pattern of rabfak students who were regarded the most loyal supporters to the transformation of vuzy. Stalin`s Cultural Revolution exploited these concern in the party and signified an end to the experimentalism during the NEP era. (Seoul National University)

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