논문 : 에라스투스주의 ( Erastianism ) 논쟁과 영국혁명 - The British Revolution -

등록일 2003.07.10 | 최종수정일 2016.07.18 파일확장자어도비 PDF (pdf) | 32페이지 | 가격 6,700원
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발행기관 : 한국서양사학회 수록지정보 : 서양사론 / 69권
저자명 : 김중락(Joong Lak Kim)

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The aim of this article is to examine the debate on the jurisdictional power of the church government between the rigid Presbyterians and the Erastians during the British Revolution. In 1645, the Assembly of Divines at Westminster drafted a Presbyterian form of church government which was almost as identical as the Scottish one according to the Solemn League and Covenant. The English parliament, however, rejected the Scottish form of church government. Although a Presbyterian system was accepted by the majority of English MPs, it was rather the Erastian one which claimed that the final authority, whether civil or religious, should remain in the power of the parliament. It was a hybrid system of church government which the English parliament adopted in reaction to the old system of Episcopacy. The Erastians believed that some sort of Presbyterianism would be necessary to keep the Church of England as a truly national church. They feared that they might relive their suffering if they kept the old system, and that the national church itself would be endangered if toleration was allowed. It was these negative factors that made the majority in Parliament and the Assembly stand on the Presbyterian side. Therefore, they have no intention to allow any similar church government to the old one established in England. This situation caused a fierce debate between the rigid Presbyterians who were led by the Scottish Commissioners at London and dominated the Assembly of Divines, and the Erastians who were mostly lawyer MPs in the Commons. Based on the theory of two kingdoms which distinguished the kingdom of God(church) from the kingdom of a Christian king, the English Presbyterians and the Scottish Commissioners claimed the full clerical jurisdiction and the final authority of religious matters in the hands of the general assembly. They even argued that if magistrates are scandalous, they are to be debarred from the Sacrament, and that the Scottish form of Presbyterian church government to be jure divino, meaning from the Scripture, and the best reformed one. They also argued that a full conformity of the Church of England to the Church of Scotland was covenanted in the Solemn League and Covenant of 1643, as the first article of it prescribed "the reformation of religion in the kingdoms of England and Ireland, in doctrine, worship, discipline, and government, according to the Word of God, and the example of the best reformed churches". They pointed out that therefore, any attempt to deny this was a violation of the Oath of God. Particularly the Scottish Commissioners pressed this point with the Scottish nation`s will. The Presbyterian stance on church discipline was frightening for many Erastians. For the most members of the Parliament, to keep themselves superior to the clergy was the only way to prevent the abuse of clerical power. Few were positively enthusiastic about the jure divino Presbyterianism of the Kirk. In response to the Presbyterian emphasis on the covenanted uniformity, the Erastians, with help of the Independents, created a new term, unity. They argued that the word uniformity in the covenant meant unity, because uniformity was neither possible nor good for liberty of conscience. By November 1646 a Presbyterian system was set up in London. However, the system was absolutely Erastian form of Presbyterian church government, which Robert Baillie, one of the Scottish Commissioners referred to as `a lame Erastian Presbyterie`. The Scots believed that the English were to blame for the failure of covenanted uniformity. But from the English perspective, it was the Scots that forced a church system they could not accept. The different reformation settlements in the two nations had created different national identities. It was the confirmation of this difference what the Erastian controversy achieved. (Kyungpook National University)

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