논문 : 부르크하르트의 문화사의 과제

등록일 2003.07.10 | 최종수정일 2016.07.18 파일확장자어도비 PDF (pdf) | 30페이지 | 가격 6,500원
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발행기관 : 한국서양사학회 수록지정보 : 서양사론 / 69권
저자명 : 이상신(Sang Shi Yi)

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Burckhardt is the historian who presented a new perspective of cultural historical studies, in opposition to prevailing trend of political history in ther late 19th century. His perspective has a special meaning because he suggested a task of cultural education and critique of Reality based on his astute insight about his era. He supposed state, religion and culture as three main factors of the formation of history. Especially culture has its own value and freedom. In this context, freedom is a kind of mental freedom. However, he saw that industrialism, materialism, the radical mass movement and expansionism of European states in the 19th century had accelerated the imbalance between those 3 main factors, and this imbalance would finally get culture into the crisis of falling. Therefore he denied the progress of history. He also prospected that anti-culturalistic materialism and the mass movement which claimed uniformity and equalitarianism would destroy the traditions and orders of European culture and thwart the transmission of cultural traditions. He emphasized that finally totalitarianism would appear with this process The fact that his prediction came true. proved his excellence as a historian. As he saw the future in a pessimistic way, he suggested a cultural education for Bourgeoisie as a solution. He believed that human could hand down the cultural legacy through exerting conscious efforts. In order words, he still trusted history itself, even though he presented a pessimistic prospect about future. The method of his historical research was not objective. Rather, it was subjective as he contemplated the objects and eras of his study in the context of world history. Also his book, Weltgeschichtliche Betrachtungen showed his effort to embrace and understand all races and eras in deep philosophical speculation, even though he repudiated the philosophy of history. What he wanted to reveal through his study is "The man in milieu of history". It can be said that his historical works were the output of anthropological introspection. He appraised the tradition of old European culture highly. And obviously he was conservative in that he expressed repugnance about industrialism and uniformal equalitarianism of the mass movement. But his conservatism was, in a certain sense aristocratic, absolutely discerned from the romantic and political one which would not give any help to development. It was a kind of cultural conservatism. (Korea University)

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