논문( Abstract ) : 중세 동업조합의 총회 ( Morgensprache ) : 북독일 도시의 사례를 중심으로

등록일 2003.07.10 | 최종수정일 2016.07.18 파일확장자어도비 PDF (pdf) | 29페이지 | 가격 6,400원
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발행기관 : 한국서양사학회 수록지정보 : 서양사론 / 67권
저자명 : 박흥식(Heung Sik Park)

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Recent studies on guilds in the medieval period have focused on the types of their association, the result of which have paid little attention to how they managed to lead communal lives of their own. This paper examines the organization and communal nature of the guild based on general assembly of its members (Morgensprache) with a view of filling the lacunae of recent studies. This study will show the character of autonomous community achieved by its members by examining vividly the real picture of self-governance of the association through the openings and proceedings of Morgensprache. In addition, the character will be shown by examining the limits of authority of the city-lord and the municipal council in the matter of jurisdiction and judicial power of Morgensprache. In this paper I use the statues of northern German cities, Lu¨neburg and Goslar, as a concrete case studies of Morgensprache of merchant and craft guilds. With the help of primary sources I can find the following facts: members of the guilds organized their associations for meeting their needs and autonomously solving the problems in lives. Morgensprache was the center of their autonomous communal lives. Morgensprache was the place where debated urgent and annually repeated agenda. It also punished members violating the statues and had judicial powers not to be exercised by outside members. The jurisdiction of Morgensprache was essential for solving impending problems of the guild. This jurisdiction made it possible for the guild to regulate the choice of occupation and most of every lives of members. The guild imposed mostly economic regulation on its members when they violated `communal norms` written in the statutes. It also employed the coercive expulsion from the community in order to maintain the discipline and cohesion of the organization. In general, the basic significance of Morgensparche can be found in the attempt to solidify the communal cohesion of guild members by pledging an oath, religious ceremony, and banquet including communal dinner rather than counsels and judicial courts. The guild could achieve the common interests of its members based on the collective ceremony and experiences, and the feeling of solidarity resulted from the former two. The guild enjoyed somewhat an autonomy regardless of its size and number of its members, but it remained a subordinate organization of the city. The organization of the guild and lives of its members in fact were regulated by the council based on the fact that all citizens and heads of the guilds as well as its members had an obligation of annual oath and the surveillance function of the council on the guild, which was especially manifest in Lu¨neburg.(Seoul National University)

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