논문 ( Abstract ) : 19 세기 후반 미국 목회자들의 대외 인식

등록일 2003.07.10 | 최종수정일 2016.07.18 파일확장자어도비 PDF (pdf) | 26페이지 | 가격 6,100원
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발행기관 : 한국서양사학회 수록지정보 : 서양사론 / 66권
저자명 : 정성화(Sung Hwa Cheong)

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This paper analyzes American ministers` world views during the second half of the nineteenth century. American ministers of the generation between the Civil War and the Spanish American War defined the problem of America`s mission not only in the context of a theological question but also in the context of larger questions of history and purpose. They were influenced by such European thinkers as Hegel, Guizot, and Spencer. Some ministers identified God`s rule in history with the extension of freedom. For them the nation itself embodied and fulfilled that goal. America`s self-perceived world role was to become the kingdom of God on earth where political liberty was synonymous with moral perfection. When history was viewed as the advancement of the kingdom to perfect civilization, ministers perceived their nation`s role as large and decisive. American mission was to solve problems of social progress by creating the most highly perfected social order. Those problems were not resolved simply by the introduction of political freedom, although political freedom was part of social progress. Ideal order demanded self-government in all aspects of society. This was called democracy. The national mission of social perfection in democracy was both an immediate end and a means toward the ultimate progress of civilization. America`s special role in history was further accented by its peculiar geographic, racial and religious characteristics. Thus its peculiar mission involved all the ultimate factors of life. In addition, American ministers believed that an overruling providence turned all human evil, even the evils of war, to its own good and that momentous developments were impending. By interpreting the world`s history in light of these presuppositions, they were able to accept England as a partner in the common mission. The prevailing perception was that Russia represented principles completely antagonistic to Anglo-Saxon ideals and was thus a potential enemy of America. Although China was viewed as uncivilized, it was nevertheless deemed a fertile ground for evangelism and a potential future contributor to world development. American ministers sought to americanize the world. They believed that western civilization was the wave of the future. They were typical Americans of their times in terms of their attitudes and values, and were so in tune with the American public that very few people noticed anything amiss. Instinctively or intentionally playing upon popular prejudices and beliefs, they sometimes distorted historical facts for their own religious fervor, and indoctrinated the public. In light of all these factors, it was little wonder that American ministers responded as they did to the crisis in Cuba and the Philippines at the close of the century. (Myong Ji University)

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