특집 : 20 세기에 대한 역사적 평가 / 논문 : 20 세기 러시아사에서의 국민 통합과 민족주의

등록일 2003.07.10 | 최종수정일 2016.07.17 파일확장자어도비 PDF (pdf) | 21페이지 | 가격 5,600원
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발행기관 : 한국서양사학회 수록지정보 : 서양사론 / 62권
저자명 : 조호연(Ho Yeon Cho)

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This paper analyzes the characteristics of the Russian history in the twentieth century particularly from the point of the national integration. As the multinational state, which has over 150 peoples, Russia has had a lot of difficulties in integrating its nation. Coming into power after the Russian Revolution in 1917, Bolsheviks, including V. I. Lenin, considered themselves to be internationalists and were confident that the borders among peoples would be eliminated by the coming world revolution. As NEP came to an end in the late 1920`s, I. V. Stalin strived to integrate the nation through the so-called "National Bolshevism." However, it must be remembered that national elites began to be formed and consolidated in the various regions of the USSR. After Stalin`s death, N. S. Khrushchev attacked Stalinism in the famous secret speech, and predicted that social organization could replace the state apparatus in the era of Communism, scheduled for 1980. At this time, nationalism was declared to be a "bourgeois" survival from a previous age and it was suggested that the nations and ethnic groups of the USSR would undergo a "drawing together"(sblizhenie) and then a complete "merger"(sliianie) under Communism, so that "a new Soviet man" would emerge. However, both of Khrushchev`s internal and external policies turned out to be a failure, by which the USSR could not achieve the national integration again. Brezhnev`s 18-year period of rule aggravated the economic and social situations of USSR, which made M. S. Gorvachev propose "Perestroika" and "Glasnost"`. In contrast with Gorvachev`s expectation, his reforms had moved from a "revolution-from-above" to a massive, multinational series of revolutions from below. As a result, the USSR has collapsed. Therefore, we come to the conclusion that the national integration has been one of the most difficult and important problems in the Russian history of the twentieth century. (Kyungnam University)

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