특집 : 20 세기에 대한 역사적 평가 / 논문 : 20 세기 영국에서의 국가

등록일 2003.07.10 | 최종수정일 2016.07.17 파일확장자어도비 PDF (pdf) | 27페이지 | 가격 6,200원
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발행기관 : 한국서양사학회 수록지정보 : 서양사론 / 62권
저자명 : 조용욱(Yong Ook Cho)

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The rise of the state has been one of the most salient features of twentieth-century history. Britain is no exception. This article intends to survey the ways in which the British state has evolved since the later nineteenth century. The minimal regulatory state in the Victorian era gave way to the interventionist thrust as the later nineteenth century saw the `rediscovery` of poverty, the revival of socialism, and the consequent labour unrest. Under the aegis of New Liberalism the state was to play a more active role in forging stable industrial relations and social peace. Two important elements emerged in the process : first, the concepts of national efficiency, social welfare and social engineering that have been central to the political discourse on the state throughout the twentieth century ; second, the growing importance of organized labour reflected in the emerging, inchoate tripartite relationship between the state, labour and capital. Pre-WWI state interventionism was greatly heightened by the wartime collectivism, which was relaxed with the coming of peace, but never returned to what it had been before the war. WWII proved to be much more crucial than WWI to the development of state interventionism. The emergence of welfare state under the Labour government of 1945-51 not only entrenched labour`s place in British capitalism, but established the state as the manager of social welfare. As Britain`s economic performance seriously deteriorated in the 1960s and 1970s, however, the successive governments had to reconcile social welfare with economic rationalization. Neither the Conservatives(1970-74), nor the Labourites(1964-70, 1974-79) managed to come up with any viable solution. In particular, the demise of `Social Contract` wrought by the Callaghan government`s acceptance of the monetarist policies dictated by IMF paved the way to the `Thatcherite revolution`. Thatcher was more successful than any other premiers in reducing the role of the state and Labour in British society. Despite all her efforts, rhetorical as well as practical, however, the minimization of the state and the regeneration of economy she had promised to accomplish were not materialized. After the eighteen-year rule by Thatcher and her successors, Britain is still left with the same fundamental questions : Is state intervention desirable? If so, what is the optimal level of intervention? ; More concretely, how much is the state to spend its resources on social welfare to guarantee the necessary social peace for efficient and competitive production? And what are the institutional forces and arrangements that can best be deployed for this purpose? (Kookmin University)

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