16 세기 국어의 명령법 어미 ' - 소 / 오 ( △ㅗ ) / 조 ' 의 기원에 대하여

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저자명 : 고광모(Kwang Mo Ko)

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This paper deals with the origin of the imperative endings -so, -zo, -o, and -co in sixteenth-century Korean. There is no functional difference between them, and it is highly probable that they have the same origin. The examples of -zo and -co are found at the beginning of the sixteenth century, and those of -so and -o in the latter half of the century. However, it should be admitted that -so also existed at the beginning of the sixteenth century. It seems clear that -o, which occurs after vowel-final stems, changed from -zo by the intervocalic change z$gt;φ which was in progress at that time. So, we have three forms -so, -zo, and -co to search for the origin. The consonants of these three forms coincide with those of -s○p-/-z○p-/-c○p-, respectively. The latters are allomorphs of the prefinal ending {-s○p-), which is an honorific marker. Moreover, the environments in which -zo and -co occur coincide with those in which -z○p- and -c○p- do, respectively. Thus, there has been an opinion that -so/-zo/-co was formed by truncation from -s○osyosy○/-z○osyosy○/-c○osyosy○, which is the sequence of -s○p-/-z○p-/-c○p- plus another imperative ending -○syosy○. I agree to this opinion. However, there is an important problem. The environment in which -so occurs does not coincide with that in which -s○p- does. In the latter half of the sixteenth century, -so occurs in all environments and -zo and -co are not found any more. The key to understanding this fact is to take into consideration the fact that the loss of z was in progress in the sixteenth century. The loss of z consists of the intervocalic change z $gt; φ and the post-nasal change z $gt;s. By the latter, -zo changed into -so after nasal consonants. It is believed that -zo after vowel-final stems changed not only to -o but also to -so. The latter change can be explained as a result of the speakers` desire to preserve the morpheme-initial consonant. It is thought that -co which had an extremely limited distribution was replaced by overwhelming -so at last. It is quite likely that -so/-zo/-co was formed around when z began to disappear. The reason why the consonantal alternation of -so/-zo/-co was leveled out so easily is presumed to be that it had little time for getting firm in the speech community.

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