청태조실록고 (淸太祖實錄考)

등록일 2003.07.10 | 최종수정일 2016.07.19 파일확장자어도비 PDF (pdf) | 21페이지 | 가격 5,600원
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발행기관 : 한국알타이학회 수록지정보 : 알타이학보 / 11권
저자명 : (Jun Matsumura)

영어 초록

The completion of the Taizu shilu came before the Qing conquest, in the first year of Chongde, 1636, the year that Qing Taizong (Hong Taiji) declared the name "Great Qing." The compilers, however, had absolutely no knowledge of the Ming Veritable Records. It is commonly held that the Manchu- and Chinese-language copies of the Taizu Wu huangdi shilu now stored respectively in the First Historical Archives in Beijing and the National Central Library in Taipei, represent the first versions completed in 1636. But when we look at the pertinent entry in the Jiu Manzhou dang regarding the completion of the Shilu (vol. 10, Chongde 1.11.15), we find the title recorded there to be Taizu taihou Shilu, i.e., the "Veritable Records of the Taizu emperor and the empress." The Taizu Wu huangdi shilu having been completed only in the Shunzhi reign, it cannot be regarded as being the first version completed in 1636. While the content of the Manzhou shilu agrees with the Shunzhi-era revision of the Wu huangdi shilu, in the Chinese-language Taizong shilu, under the entry for the eighth day of the eighth month of the ninth year of Tiancong(1635), it is recorded that the illustrations for the Wu huangdi shilu were finished. From this passage arose the conviction that this was the original version of the Manzhou shilu. However, this was the result of the mistranslation of the Manchu phrase, "nenehe genggiyen han i yabuha kooli bithe" as "Taizu shilu." Thus it should be stressed that the only thing that was finished on this date were the illustrations. After the conquest, that is, during the Shunzhi reign, a comparison of the Chongde-era Taizu taihou shilu with the Ming Veritable Records made it clear that not only was the title (yabuha kooli bithe, i.e., "record of the deeds") different from what it should have been ("veritable records" in Manchu is yargiyan i kooli), but also that its format was so different as to be incomparable with the Ming-style Veritable Records. Thus in the first month of the sixth year of Shunzhi (1649), since all the proper names in the text needed to be made uniform, a complete revision of the Taizu taihou shilu was undertaken. The revisions made at this time were mostly superficial, and there was no thorough checking of content. For this reason, under the Kangxi emperor a third revision of these records was carried out. The emperor himself personally made corrections to the text, and the length was expanded from four to twelve juan. The finished version was title Taizu gao huangdi shilu, reflecting the additional shi bestowed by the Kangxi emperor upon his great-grandfather. Following this, at the suggestion of the grand secretary Ortai, in 1734 the place names and personal names in the three Veritable Records of Nurhaci, Hong Taiji, and Shunzhi (i.e., Taizu gao huangdi shilu, Taizong wen huangdi shilu, and Shizu zhang huangdi shilu) were all again revised to accord with usage in the Veritable Records of the Kangxi emperor`s reign (Shengzu ren huangdi shilu). This additional revision of the version originally revised under Kangxi was completed under the Qianlong emperor and stored safely in the Huangshi cheng. The Jiu Manzhou long is an important source for understanding the compilation history of the Taizu shilu. That portion covering Taizu`s career begins with Zhaozu (Dudu Mentemu) fixing his residence at Hetu Ala, through the era of the Six Ancestors and their descendants, up through Nurhaci`s being declared genggiyen han and taking the throne. It was written in Manchu by the Scholar Erdeni (Erdeni Baksi). As the Manchu written language was created by Erdeni and G`ag`ai in 1599 at Nurhaci`s direct order, it represents the beginning of Manchu-language historical documents. In the entry noting Erdeni`s execution in the fifth month of the eighth year of Tianming (1623), it is written that Ku ̄rcan Baksi continued this work of recording the life and deeds of Nurhaci. That is, the record begun by Erdeni was enlarged and
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