대흥안령지구에 있어서 만주문화

등록일 2003.07.10 | 최종수정일 2016.07.19 파일확장자어도비 PDF (pdf) | 13페이지 | 가격 4,800원
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발행기관 : 한국알타이학회 수록지정보 : 알타이학보 / 11권
저자명 : (Naoto Kato)

영어 초록

There are few documents concerning the people of the Great Xing-an-ling 大興安嶺 region, whose ethnic group do not have own writing system. In Qing archives, the most valuable documents on this people were, I think, the documents of the Headquarters at Butha 布特哈總管衙門 which is the center of the Qing`s administration at the region. The Qing aimed to control the people living in the Xing-an-ling region through this Butha office. The Qing recognized that the people of the Great Xing-an-ling were divided into three groups, Solon, Dagur and Orocon. These people had lived in the upper and middle river district of the Amur river until the middle of the seventeenth century. They moved to the Nen-jiang valley at the end of the Qing Shun-zhi period. Dagur, Solon and a certain number of people who lived in northeast China, had studied Manchu language as a means of attaining culture. Even after the Qing dynasty had fallen, they continued to study Manchu language. The language of Dagur is not written, but they had been reading Mongolian, and moreover their language preserved an early form of Mongolian. Why did they study written Manchu rather than Mongolian letters? In the case of Dagur people, all of the people of over than 60 years old are good at reading and writing Manchu. In fact, there had been private schools for Manchu language until the end of Man-zhou-guo 滿洲國 or the beginning of New China. The Dagur`s case is different from that of other people living in the lower Nen-jiang valley. For example, residents of San-jia-zi-tun 三家子屯 at Fu-yu-xian 富裕縣 in Heilongjiang Province, are the descendants of troops at Jilin Shui-shi-ying 吉林水師營 or the Headquarters of Water Troops at Jilin, and have kept their own Manchu language because of the geographical environment. So they are good at speaking Manchu, but not good at reading and writing. As the Manchu language of the Dagur people had been studied to gain literate culture, they are good at reading and writing, but not good at speaking. They studied written Manchu. We often form an image that the foundation of the Republic of China meant the denial and disappearance of Manchu culture. This understanding, however, is too inappropriate when studying the people living in the Great Xing-an-ling region. Not only after the 1911 Revolution, but at least until the foundation of the People`s Republic of China, the culture of the people in this region meant the ability to read and write in Manchu language not in Chinese.
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