문제행동의 기능분석과 의사소통훈련 모델

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목차

Ⅰ. 서 론

Ⅱ. 기능평가와 기능분석
1. 기능 평가
1) 보고식 평가(informant assessment)
2) 기술 평가(discriptive assessment)
2. 기능 분석

Ⅲ. 기능적 의사소통훈련 모델

Ⅳ. 결 론

*참고문헌

본문내용

Ⅰ. 서 론
행동장애아동의 자해, 공격 및 기타 문제행동들은 조작적 조건형성 원리(operant conditioning principles)를 이용한 치료 기법들을 통해 감소되거나 제거될 수 있다. 그러나 어떤 기법이 효과가 있을지라도, 변화된 행동이 문제행동에 기저하고 있는 동일한 목적을 달성할 수 없다면 그 효과는 단기에 그칠 뿐이다. 즉, 문제행동은 어떤 기법들을 통해 단기간에 사라지기도 하지만, 어떤 절차를 중단하자마자 다시 나타나게 된다. 어떤 행동의 기능을 고려하지 않으면, 문제행동의 억압이 불가피하게 "증상 대치" (symptom substitution)를 유발하거나 또다른 문제행동을 야기시킬 수 있다(Alberto & Troutman, 1995). 또 혐오적인 결과를 사용하여 행동을 제거할 수 있지만, 그 행동의 기능에 대한 대안 수단이 없다면 비윤리적이라고 할 수 있다(Pyles & Bailey, 1990).

기능 분석(functional analysis)은 개인의 행동에 대한 어떤 내적 동기를 파악할 수 있을 뿐 아니라 그것을 일으키고 유지시키는 환경을 정의할 때 그 행동 자체의 목적을 강조한다. 의사소통에 결함이 있는 아동이 주의를 끌기 위하여 분노발작(tantrums)을 일으키거나 읽지 못하는 학생이 당황 혹은 비웃음을 모면하기 위하여 그의 책을 던질 경우에, 그들의 목적을 달성하기 위한 다른 방법을 제공하지 않고 이런 행동들을 처벌한다는 것은 바람직하지 않다. 행동의 형태에 대해 초점을 두면 그 행동의 원인이 되는 요인들에 대한 정보를 얻지 못할 수 있다. 예를 들면, 두명의 아동이 보이는 동일한 행동이 전적으로 다른 자극에 의해 유지될 수 있다. 한 아동의 공격행동이 교사나 또래의 주의끌기 기능(정적 강화)이 될 수 있고, 또 다른 아동은 과제, 사회적 상호작용, 혹은 아동이 혐오스럽다고 생각하는 다른 사건을 회피하는 기능(부적 강화)이 될 수 있다. 어떤 한가지 치료 기법이 그런 상이한 기능을 하는 행동들에 동일한 영향을 미치지는 않는다(Iwata, Vollmer, & Zarcone, 1990).

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